Hemiunu, the architect of the Great Pyramid, hides the blueprint

Manu Seyfzadeh, after examining the dimensions of the tomb of Hemiunu (conventionally labeled “G4000”), the architect of the Great Pyramid, calls it a “blueprint” for that mighty structure.(1) In the first building phase of Hemiunu’s tomb Seyfzadeh claims the architect encoded the main external measurements of the Great Pyramid, including its height, side, and the indent of its core masonry. In the second and expanded phase of the architect’s tomb, Seyfzadeh finds encoded some of the interior measurements of “G1”, (a conventional designation for the Great Pyramid), including the dimensions of the Kings Chamber. Seyfzadeh remarks of the connections between Hemiunu’s mastaba (G4000) and G1, “This is powerful evidence that the connection between G4000 and G1 is not only real but was intended because the chance of an unintended random match with respect to all these features is low.” Such conclusions obviate debate over the authorship and dating of the Great Pyramid. It was commissioned by 4th Dynasty pharaoh Khufu, the uncle of his architect Hemiunu.

With this article I would like to add to the connections between the architect of the Great Pyramid and his grand achievement in stone at Giza. I made presentations at the Annual Conference of The American Research Center in Egypt (ARCE) in 2019 and again in 2020 about markings on the East side of the Great Pyramid. This is a large and highly respected Egyptological conference. In 2019 I drew some conclusions about the Trial Passages and the “Third Trial Passage” and their relation to the Great Pyramid. In 2020 I showed how some rather insignificant looking markings on the eastern bedrock pointed to the elements of the Pyramid’s internal passage system. My presentation at the 2020 ARCE session can be viewed here.

Below is a photo of one set of 5 marks (the 5th is divided into 3 sections) east of the Great Pyramid. You can see the base of the Pyramid at the top of the photo. It appeared to me that these were pointers meant to draw attention toward the Great Pyramid. In February and March of 2020 my research team measured these marks, with the main research intent of seeing where they pointed.

Great Pyramid East side markings

After numbering these marks we color coded them, as below:

Markings on the East Side of the Great Pyramid

Here is a composite drawing showing the results of following these lines through to the Pyramid’s interior. There was not one of these pointers that pointed outside the line of the Pyramid’s passages named in red on the results drawing. The blue line on the left from mark #2 points to the southernmost end of the passage system, the end of the “dead end” passage in the Subterranean Chamber. This is a top view of the Great Pyramid with North on the right. Most of the lines from these pointers seemed to be pointing to a specific area in one of the passages.

Resultant angles from 5 East side Great Pyramid markers

As I was laying out these markings on this plan of the Great Pyramid and its satellites, the two boat pits, circled in the drawing below caught my attention:

E-W boat pits east of the Great Pyramid

I sensed they too might be pointing at something… why these odd angles? So when I laid them out, this is what they came to:

B

Boat pit pointers on the East side of the Great Pyramid

You can see I made a note to myself to check out where this point would be in terms of height on the outside of the Pyramid… I thought there was probably more than chance involved when these two pointers converged exactly on the Southwest diagonal of the Pyramid. With the help of AIP associate, engineer Bob Crielly, we ascertained that the boat pits pointed to the point on the Southwest arris angle that was analogous to the “Notch” which is the widely known and highly visible “opening” on the Northeast arris angle. Here is photo of the Great Pyramid’s “Notch”:

The “Notch” on the Great Pyramid Northeast arris angle.

So the “Notch” and the point on the Southwest arris pointed to by the boat pits formed a square on a top view of the Great Pyramid:

Square formed on the Great Pyramid by the Notch and the boat pointers.

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Further examination of this square, created by the boat pits pointings, led to more discoveries. The mysterious air shafts originating in the Kings Chamber, whose purpose has no consensual explanation, both exit the Great Pyramid through this square! The north air shaft exits 3 royal cubits east of the north-south central axis on the Square’s (I will now begin to capitalize mentions of this specific square) north side, and the south air shaft exits 10 royal cubits east of that center line, on the Square’s south side, as seen in the following diagram:

The north side of this special square goes directly over the beginning of one of the most amazing rooms in the world, the Grand Gallery. It is as if the Square is highlighting, or outlining the Grand Gallery and the Pyramid passages beyond this point: the Grand Gallery, the Queens Chamber Passage and Chamber, the Great Step, the antechamber, the Subterranean Passage and Chamber, and of course The Kings Chamber and its relieving chambers, and, of course, the chamber found by the ScanPyramid team’s muons. The passages boxed in are the same ones pointed to by the 5 markers discussed above. This Square thus brings attention to the architectural statement made by the change from the low, stressful confines of the Pyramid’s First Ascending Passage to the glorious uplift of the 7-corbelled, majestic, Grand Gallery, and seems to imply that these are the passages to focus on. The beginning of the Grand Gallery highlighted by the north side of the Great Pyramid Square is pictured below:

The north side of the Great Pyramid Square is directly over the start of the Grand Gallery

As these connections with this Pyramid Square were mounting, it screamed out with intentionality, beyond the serendipity of coincidence. Intentionality? Egyptologist John Romer in uncovering the lifesize blueprint of the Great Pyramid on the bedrock east of that monument, states that the only “sign of genuine intention” can be the symmetry and “harmonies of angle, form, and size” bequeathed by its “surviving architecture.”(2) So what greater proof of intentionality than a connection in the “surviving architecture,” the “angles, form and size” of not just the Pyramid, but the Pyramid in tandem with the tomb of the Pyramid builder? Intentionality squared! Would not this brilliant architect – and apparent cryptographer – have embedded connections between this Pyramid Square and his tomb if it was meaningful? It was the shape and direction of boat pits apparently designed by him that led to the discovery of this Square. The number of connections of major Pyramid elements with this Square would seem to make it a major revelation. Seyfzadeh had opened a door that we wanted to look into. Was there any connection with the tomb of Hemiunu and this Square? This hunch led quickly to geometric indication, one using “angles, form and size.” Below is a Quickbird satellite image of the relevant part of the Giza plateau:

Quickbird Satellite Image of part of the Giza plateau

To the above view we have added the following geometric connections. First we have drawn the Pyramid Square in blue on the Pyramid, which touches all the points we have previously indicated. In red we show the North-South axis of the Pyramid. In black the lines from the boat pits pointing to the southwest corner of the Square are drawn. Yellow diagonals are drawn on the Pyramid to ascertain true center. Notice now the addition of the green lines. The north side of the Pyramid Square lies due East of the north side of Hemiunu’s tomb, and the south side of Hemiunu’s tomb is due west of the exact center of the Pyramid, and the Square itself. And notice the addition of the white line. Since the other boat pits acted as pointers, a line from the south end of the N-S facing southern boat pit on the Pyramid’s east side, lines up directly with the northwest corner of Hemiunu’s tomb, going right through the southwest corner of the Square, the corner pointed to by the east side E-W boat pits. Here then are two distinct and separate indications of connections between Hemiunu’s tomb and the Great Pyramid Square, thus furnishing further evidences of Hemiunu’s intent on showcasing this Square.

Hemiunu
G1 and G4000. Geometry explained in the text

There is more. Let’s look again at the two East-West oriented boat pits on the Great Pyramid’s east side that started our notice of the Great Pyramid Square. The odd angle of their separate tilts, when extended, converged on what is the southwest corner of the Square, on the southwest arris angle. But look what happens when the line pointing from the southernmost of the two boat pits is extended… it points directly to the southwest corner of Hemiunu’s mastaba! Southwest to southwest, G1 to G4000, Great Pyramid to Hemiunu! Hemiunu seems intent upon pointing to this Square.

Hemiunu
The boat pit pointer which pinpoints the southwest corner of the Great Pyramid Square, when extended, strikes the southwest corner of the Hemiunu tomb, G4000!

This is enough evidence for me to believe that we are beyond chance and coincidence. Hemiunu left clues and connections about the Great Pyramid, connected the his tomb, G4000. And the evidence has not ended yet.

Seyfzadeh, following data from Flinders Petrie, uses the seqed formula to calculate the square area of various course levels of the Great Pyramid in relation to the Pyramid’s base area (SAR, “surface area ratios”), and then converts them to Royal Cubits, the unit the Pyramid was built with. I have seen it happen often that near whole number results are obtained with such conversions. Indeed Petrie seems to pinpoint certain courses which have near whole number ratios in twenty fifths (n/25) to the base area. (Seyfzadeh adds four courses not pinpointed by Petrie, with the thesis that these whole number twenty-fifths seem to signal the coming of a “peak” course, one notably larger than those preceding it.) So for this calculation we will first need the Pyramid course of the Great Pyramid Square. Petrie shows that the two Kings Chamber air shafts exit the Pyramid in the 103rd course:

Hemiunu
Part of plate XI from Petrie’s classic work, The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh.

Another indication of the 103rd course is the Notch on the northeast arris angle of the Pyramid. The Notch is listed as being at the 104th course. But we are only interested in the floor of the Notch, which is the very top of the 103rd course. So we will calculate for the area of a side of the 103rd course of masonry of the Great Pyramid.

To calculate the area of the 103rd course, we need to first find its height. That we can take from Petrie’s table listing the height of each course. But as perfect as the Pyramid is, Petrie found the reading of each course height was slightly different depending on what side was measured. He gives the reading for the northeast and southwest corners, so these will be averaged. His reading for the northeast height is 3148.4″ and his reading for the southwest is 3149.5″.(3) Averaged the height is 3148.95″. Converting the inch length to royal Egyptian cubits, using 20.614 inches per cubit yields 152.758 royal cubits (rc). To this I applied the seqed formula, which gives the slope angle of the Pyramid, 11 base run by 14 rise. 152.758 rc times 11/14 equals 120.02 rc. This is then doubled and subtracted from the length of a side of the Great Pyramid, 440 rc. The result is the value we are looking for, the side length of the Great Pyramid Square. This formula is shown below:

Formula Used to Calculate the Side Length of the Great Pyramid Square:
—————————————-
The base of the Great Pyramid, 440 rc,
minus
[the height of course 103: 125.787rc times the seqed of 11/14 (= 120.02 rc) times 2 = 240.04]
equals
199.96 rc.

The result is the near whole number we had anticipated suggesting that the side length of course 103 of the Great Pyramid is very nearly 200 rc. The first thing of interest to me here, is that this calculation has identified a course (the 103rd) which is a nearly even numbered twenty fifth of the base (5/25) but Petrie does not mention it in what appears to be his attempt to identify courses of nearly whole integer fractions of twenty fifths of the base. Indeed he pinpoints the courses which are 1/25 (course 161), 2/25 (143), 4/25 (115), 6/25 (97), 7/25, (89) and 9/25 (73), but leaves out 5/25! Hemiunu certainly has a way of hiding things in plain sight!

I should mention, however, that Seyfzadeh did not miss this. In a highlighted sentence from his paper about these “numerically tagged surface ratios” we are discussing, he writes that the surface area ratios “8/25 and 5/25 are conspicuously absent as integer multiples in the otherwise continuous sequence.” (4) Seyfzadeh then mentions that the numbers five and eight had astronomical, theological and architectural significance during the time Hemiunu lived. He probably had a hand in designing the Pyramid of Menkaure, because of the many evidences of a unified plan at Giza (see our You Tube playlist on “Giza Unified Pyramid Plans“) and that Pyramid’s design is based on a base of eight and a height of five! And we will see another Hemiunu connection to the Menkaure Pyramid coming up. Five and eight are also numbers in the Fibonacci sequence, and we have shown elsewhere that the three main Giza Pyramids are in a Fibonacci Spiral, something which would be nearly statistically impossible by chance. Another likely evidence of Hemiunu influenced design!

It is interesting that the derived base for the 103rd course, our Great Pyramid Square, is very nearly equivalent to the base length of the Menkaure pyramid. Charles Rigano, writing in Pyramids of the Gizeh Plateau, says of Menkaure’s Pyramid, “Based on Petrie’s measurements, the architects intended a pyramid of base length of 200 cubits.”(5) Dr. Mark Lehner, in The Complete Pyramids: Solving the Ancient Mysteries, gives the base lengths as 102.2 and 104.6 meters, which, when converted to royal cubits gives 195.22rc and 199.8rc, or again, very nearly 200 cubits. (6)

With the focus that Hemiunu seems to have had with the Great Pyramid Square, it is not unreasonable to see a connection between it and the base length of Menkaure’s Pyramid. This Square may be a template Hemiunu is intending for us to see. The Great Pyramid Square is nearly the same size as the base of the Pyramid of Menkaure. Is Hemiunu saying that grandson’s Pyramid is a “chip off the old block?” Are there any other manifestations of this 200 rc measure on the Giza Plateau?(7)

Jim Alison has brought together a powerful body of design specifications and measurements for the Great Pyramid and the larger Giza complex. He derives the measure of 2000 rc for the practical width of the Giza Plateau, from the west side of the Menkaure Pyramid to the east side of the Sphinx and Menkaure Valley Temples, as seen in the photo diagram below: (8)

Hemiunu
The Giza Plateau is 2000 cubits wide, from Menkaure’s Pyramid on the west to the Valley Temples of the Sphinx and Menkaure on the east.

With the Great Pyramid Square having sides of 200 rc, it can be seen that the width of the Giza Plateau measured from end to end based on the major monuments there, is ten times the length of the Square. It seems Hemiunu gave us hints and pointers to the Great Pyramid Square for a reason. We do not want to disappoint his efforts and from this point on we will no longer call what we have found the Great Pyramid Square. From this time forward, we will be referring to this highly connected Square as the Hemiunu Template.

The

We are continuing our research with this template. AIP associate, engineer Bob Crielly, has made tentative connections with the Hemiunu Template and much larger areas than just the Great Pyramid and Gizeh. We are checking this work and hope to share it soon. As we refine calculations and press on with these unfolding revelations, we hope to get deeper into the mysteries that Hemiunu seems so plainly to have hidden – in plain sight! Please stay tuned!

Footnotes

  1. Manu Seyfzadeh, “Essential Design of the Great Pyramid Encoded in Hemiunu’s Mastaba at Giza“, Scientific Research, Vol. 6, No. 2, April 2018.
  2. John Romer, The Great Pyramid: Ancient Egypt Revisited, Cambridge University Press, 2007, page 61
  3. Flinders Petrie, The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh, online version: http://www.ronaldbirdsall.com/gizeh/petrie/index.htm
  4. Manu Seyfzadeh, “Hemiunu Used Numerically Tagged Surface Ratios to Mark Ceilings inside the Great Pyramid Hinting at Designed Spaces Still Hidden Within,” Archaeological Discovery, Vol. 6, 2018, 319-337.
  5. Charles Rigano, Pyramids of the Gizeh Plateau: Pyramid Complexes of Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure, p. 165.
  6. Mark Lehner, The Complete Pyramids: Solving the Ancient Mysteries, Thames and Hudson, 2008, p. 134
  7. Hemiunu’s template also caught on outside the Giza plateau. There are pyramids with base lengths of 200 Egyptian cubits, including Nefir-ir-ka-Re at Abusir, Sen-Usert I at Lisht, Sen-Users III at Dahshur and Amenemhet III at Dahshur.
  8. Jim Alison, “Proposed Design Specifications for the Great Pyramid and the Siteplan of the Giza Plateau”, http://home.hiwaay.net/~jalison/Art3.html

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