Menkaure Inside DaVinci’s Vitruvian Man

Leonardo DaVinci’s Famous Drawing of the Vitruvian Man

Leonardo DaVinci hid two pyramids (and other stuff!) inside of his famous drawing of the human physique, the Vitruvian Man. What was DaVinci’s purpose in this timeless, almost mesmerizing sketch? Vitruvius was a Roman architect whose principles of architecture, built on the trinity of strength, utility and beauty, are still followed today. Besides his work on architecture, Vitruvius taught the proper proportions of the human anatomy, and DaVinci quotes some of his teachings in the backward “mirror writing” that is part of his Vitruvian Man drawing, such as:

"The length of the outspread arms is equal to the height of a man; 
from the hairline to the bottom of the chin is one-tenth of the height of a man; 
from below the chin to the top of the head is one-eighth of the height of a man; 
from above the chest to the top of the head is one-sixth of the height of a man; 
from above the chest to the hairline is one-seventh of the height of a man..."

But DaVinci has done much more in this drawing than just be dutiful to follow proper human proportions. Robert Grant (Instagram: @robertedwardgrant, YouTube) has researched the encryptions of DaVinci, such as the backdrop of the Last Supper containing the Great Pyramid’s Kings Chamber West Wall with its depictions of the Apis Bull. Grant found the slope angle of the Great Pyramid – 51.8 degrees – in the angle of the Vitruvian Man’s outstretched arms as shown in the following drawing:

The slope angle of the Great Pyramid in DaVinci’s Vitruvian Man

This led Grant to seek the help of polymath Shakespeare scholar and friend Alan Green (Instagram: @thebardcode, YouTube), who discovered a correlation to the Great Pyramid which seems intended by DaVinci, because the horizontal lines he placed at various places on the Vitruvian Man seemed to have no purpose…but they actually correspond to the major passageways of the Great Pyramid. Here is the Great Pyramid Green found encrypted by DaVinci:

Alan Green’s discovery of the Great Pyramid encrypted in DaVinci’s Vitruvian Man

Notice the correspondence with DaVinci’s horizontal lines and the Great Pyramid’s Subterranean Chamber, Ground Level, and King’s Chamber floor line. (Note also here that Green found the dimensions of earth and moon in correct proportion. It is widely believed that the Great Pyramid is a 1/43,200 scale model of the earth.) It is interesting DaVinci has horizontal lines above the King’s Chamber, for which there is no known Great Pyramid feature. Could it be these are pinpointing the hidden chambers long suspected to exist inside the Pyramid? Here is Green’s suggested placement of these as yet undiscovered places:

Alan Green suggests DaVinci’s seven horizontals represent not only Great Pyramid chambers, but also the seven chakras popular in Eastern religious philosophy.
The author with polymath and decryptographer Alan Green, under the Hawara Pyramid.

As I was studying the work of Green and Grant described here, I discovered another Giza Pyramid suggested by DaVinci, the third pyramid, the Pyramid of Menkaure. Above the belly button in DaVinci’s drawing, is a pyramidion like marking, which is not really part of the human anatomy.

The unusual pyramidion shaped mark above the belly button on DaVinci’s Vitruvian Man

Drawing lines from there down to the two corners at the bottom of the DaVinci square traces out a pyramid with the slope angle of the Menkaure Pyramid, as follows:

The Pyramid of Menkaure hinted at by DaVinci’s pyramidion above the belly button.

Samuel Laboy, author of A Civil Engineer Looks at the Great Pyramid, claims to have found the method for drawing and designing the Great Pyramid with straight edge and compass with no measurements to follow. Everything is in proportion so any system of measure could be applied to his method. I found that Laboy had instinctively done work with DaVinci’s Vitruvian Man, and not only found the Pyramid of Menkaure in it, but also says it is in proportional size to the encoded Great Pyramid and is the basis for the triangular skirt often worn by Egyptian men. As far as I know, there has been no collaboration between Green-Grant and Laboy, yet both have similarly deciphered the Great Pyramid. Here is Laboy’s rendering of these combined Pyramids, Khufu and Menkaure:

Some of Samuel Laboy’s work on the Pyramids within DaVinci’s Vitruvian Man

Please see the YouTube video I have made of this discovery of Menkaure inside of DaVinci’s Vitruvian Man.

Menkaure Inside DaVinci’s Vitruvian Man

Sacred Geometry and the Offset Entrance to the Great Pyramid

The Great Pyramid has been studied, marveled at, researched, and ransacked by thousands of different people with almost as many perspectives of Sacred Geometry. It is of interest to New Age and progressives, alternatives and mystics, Christians and Zoroastrians, Muslims and atheists, Egyptologists (though perhaps them least of all [1]), and Pyramidologists. The Great Pyramid reveals it is claimed, the irrational constants phi, pi, and Euler, to name a few, and it encodes the speed of light [2] (See our YouTube video explaining this.) Famous geniuses who had a special connection to the magical measurements of the Great Pyramid include Leonardo DaVinci and Shakespeare. These connections are so incredible that I am not going to write about them right now, but simply give you a YouTube link to follow if you’re brave, because what is here is so amazing that it borders on miraculous:

Almost all of the measures and numerical constants claimed to be encoded in the Great Pyramid, are derived from the theoretical lengths taken from its idealized architecture, as shown, for instance, in this simple representation of the Pyramid’s form:

Idealized measures of the Great Pyramid exterior

Sacred Geometry works in design; the work of human construction often dethrones the Sacred!

This elevation drawing of the Great Pyramid lists its height as 280 (royal) cubits. This is not an actual measurement, since there is no topstone on the Great Pyramid, and it is unsure if there ever was one. So you can’t measure to its pointed top. But if you take its slope angle of 51.8 degrees and extend that to the theorized top point, mathematical calculations put the height at nearly 280 cubits. If you divide its slant height (“hypotenuse”) of 356 by its base of 220, you get very nearly the value of the phi, the Golden number, 1.618. The Great Pyramid, in the dimensions shown here, follows closely the dimensions of a perfect “Phi” pyramid:

A “Phi Pyramid” would have the height (3) of “Phi”, the base (1) of “1” and a slant height (2) of the square root of Phi. These proportions come close to the Pyramid’s actual measures.

So the Great Pyramid is probably showing evidence of its having been built by human beings using tools and instruments that have limitations and margins of error when its actual dimensions do not perfectly match the theoretical. For instance, the slant angle of the Descending Passage, the Ascending Passage, and the Grand Gallery are often given as 26 degrees, 18 minutes. But when the AIP team measured those inclines in different places in February of 2020, they varied by as much as a degree in some places. So there are the ideal, blueprint-based measures of the Great Pyramid, and then the actual. But there is a case of the Great Pyramid’s plan – it’s idealized measures – which seems like it is a “planned imperfection!” Look at the placement of the original (and apparently only planned) entrance to the Great Pyramid:

The original entrance to the Great Pyramid. View from the north.

Why was the entrance placed off the north-south central axis? If you asked most school children to place a door on a blank pyramid, most would probably place it in the center. Why the offset, which places the door about 24 feet to the east of the Pyramid’s center? And it is not only the door pictured here which is offset but all the passages and chambers it leads to, as can be seen from this top down plan view of the Great Pyramid by Dr. Mark Lehner [3], all the known passage systems in the Great Pyramid are in the offset line of the exterior door:

A New Era of Pyramid Collaboration?

Manu Seyfzadeh and Jean Paul Bauval recently posted a YouTube video in which they invite collaboration in deciphering the Great Pyramid’s architecture and meaning.[associated paper at 4.] This begins a new paradigm in the study of the mighty Silent Sage, because most researchers go it alone, build their own theories, then write their books, without a sense of collaborating with a wide group of other researchers. Seyfzadeh and Bauval share the dimensions of various parts of the Pyramid’s interior, many of them numbers from the Fibonacci series associated with the Golden number Phi. The construction method implied by their model is that of a step pyramid, onto which the polished Tura limestone casing stones which once adorned the Pyramid were added later to create the pyramid form. Here is a screenshot from their video:

From Seyfzadeh/Bauval video, “Thoth’s Great Pyramid Fibonacci Design.”

In their white paper accompanying the video [5] they point out the areas where their model makes testable predictions, where it explains some things that were previously hard to explain, and also things which their model does not prove or disprove. One of these items is the first one they list, “The east shift of the main entry, corridors and chamber doors from the meridian axes of the Great Pyramid.” The Seyfzadeh/Bauval “Thoth” model of Fibonacci numbers cannot affirm nor deny any explanation for the offset of the Great Pyramid passages.

An offset pointed to by Sacred Geometry!

What can explain this offset? I got this idea at one point, and I honestly can’t remember how, that the construction of a pentagon and hexagon merged could speak to the offset distance between the Pyramid’s center axis, and its passage systems set parallel to the central axis but 24 feet east. It might have come from a pentagon-hexagon merger that Robert Grant shared on his Instagram page (@robertedwardgrant):

Hexagon/Pentagon merger drawn by Robert Grant and displayed on his Instagram account @robertedwardgrant on January 3, 2020

You can see that the leftmost vertice of the pentagon does NOT touch the bounding circle, as the other 4 points do. I got to thinking that maybe this construction, which has ancient esoteric significance, could NOT be closed and the gap that would thus be created between the pentagon and hexagon might relate to the Pyramid’s offset. So I began trying various drawings with these two polygons, a few of which I share here:

Working with AIP Associate Will Weyer (Instagram: @willweyer), trying to see how the pentagon/hexagon merger may interface with the offset entrance of the Great Pyramid.
As stated in the text, I first thought there was a gap created between the polygons in trying to surround a pentagon/hexagon merger with a bounding circle, and I tried to see its relation to the offset entrance of the Great Pyramid.

Though I still sensed – I hoped an explorer’s instinct was at work – there was something connected between this ancient sacred construction and the ancient sacred Great Pyramid opening, I let my work sit on this, seeking help, because I lack training in formal drawing and sacred geometry.

Then recently I contacted Robert Grant about his January 3 drawing of the pentagon/heptagon merger, to see if he could explain the gap that appeared in his drawing. Robert and I share several interests, especially the Great Pyramid and Egypt generally. We have both discovered Alpha and Omega etchings inside the Great Pyramid, he on the sarcophagus in the Kings Chamber, and me near the scored lines of the Pyramid’s descending passageway into which one travels upon entering the original entrance to the Pyramid. We have also found other markings of significance inside and around the Great Pyramid. We were both inside the Great Pyramid on October 6 with special permission, he in 2017, me in 2018. During the Covid-19 crisis, Robert used the home quarantine time to offer sacred geometry drawing classes on Facebook and Instagram live and now all the classes are available on this YouTube playlist.

He probably had more sacred geometry students taking these classes than all the students enrolled in similar college courses around the country. Robert has a resume that is hard to believe is the summary of one man, so I will only mention one line-item: he is a polymath who has discovered a new set of numbers known as “quasi-primes” that, because of their ability to pinpoint distant prime members, have put at risk almost every form of password and code protection in the world. Yes, the Department of Defense and CIA know about him and his company, as does a recent cover of Forbes. I’ll stop there for now.

Robert got back to me quickly and said he would work on the construction later that day. He was sure it was just a construction error. He called me later that day and told me he had spent over an hour on it, and still could not get the pentagon to close in the bounding circle. He told me he had even gone to his electronic drawing tools (he normally does all constructions with only compass and straightedge), still without success. He said he was budgeting time in the evening to continue to wrestle with it. His inability to close the construction made me think my hunch about there needing to be a gap in between the two polygons might be correct, and that gap might be related to the Great Pyramid offset.


It turns out my hunch was wrong… but still right in the end! How? Wrong because Robert was able to close the construction, so that the 5-sided pentagon and the 6 sided hexagon, shared their common side, and the circle that surrounded them both touched all the required vertices. It is interesting that the day we were laboring to solve the 5-6 merger construction was 5-6: May 6! Such “coincidences” seem to go with the territory of Sacred Geometry! Here is what Robert sent me, leaving visible in the background the flower of life construction he used to complete it:

Sacred Geometry
Robert Grant’s solution to the challenge of the pentagon/hexagon merger.

So I was wrong about the need for a gap. The geometry of this construction is fixed: the two polygons have to have the same length sides, because, by definition, they have a common side in that they are merged. and they have to have the necessary angles for that is what defines them: the 5 angles of the pentagon must be 108 degrees each for a total of 540, and the 6 angles of the hexagon must be 120 degrees each for a total of 720 and there is – and this was the difficult part – a bounding circle which joins them, and each polygon is also bounded by its own circle.

So I took Robert’s solution and laid it horizontally over the Great Pyramid’s north side, with the pentagon on the left, the east side, and the bounding circle tangent to the two corner vertices of the Pyramid. I placed the central axis of the joined polygons directly over the base line of the Pyramid. When I did, I had an immediate sense of “Eureka!” because the common side of the polygons – the unique feature of the pentagon/hexagon merger – matched perfectly with the offset line of the Great Pyramid! Because it is hard to find perfectly scaled drawings of the Great Pyramid, I made my own simple drawing built on the base of 22, height of 14 ratio, and I diligently made sure the eastern offset where the original entrance was was spot on. Here is the drawing I used:

Sacred Geometry
My base 22, height 14 Great Pyramid, with the entrance offset drawn to scale.

Here then is how the overlay of Great Pyramid and pentagon/hexagon came out:

Sacred Geometry
The Great Pyramid offset perfectly aligns with the common side of the pentagon/hexagon merger, with the axis of the polygons laid over the base of the Pyramid, and the circle being tangent to the two base vertices of the Pyramid.

To check this alignment, I took a drawing of the Pyramid’s north side entrance offset by well known engineer and Great Pyramid enthusiast David Davidson [6] and did the same overlay:

Sacred Geometry
Drawing of the Pyramid’s north entrance eastern offset by engineer David Davidson

As you can see this overlay also shows the near-perfect alignment of Pyramid offset and the common side of the pentagon/hexagon merger.

OK, now what?

This merger of the 5 and the 6, the pentagon and hexagon, has an ancient esoteric significance, representing the merger of the microcosm and the macrocosm.

The pentagon/hexagon merger symbolizes the merger of the microcosm and the macrocosm.

The Great Pyramid: Macrocosm, Microcosm, and the Meaning of Life

In a sense, this symbol could be translated, “What is the meaning of life?” It is not unlike DaVinci’s Vitruvian man which puts man in relation to a circle and square which have been shown to be proportional to the earth and the moon. How does man fit in with his universe? What is his place in this environment? Similarly, the pentagon is the microcosm, representing mankind and the hexagon is the macrocosm, representing the larger universe. Man is joined to this great greater space, but what is his place? What is his responsibility? The 6-sided hexagon can represent the perfect harmony of the universe from the Creator, while the 5-sided pentagon represents fallen mankind, in need of grace to fulfill his calling.

When you enter the original door of the Great Pyramid, at its 19th course, and pass underneath the lovely and strong chevrons which are overhead, you immediately enter a descending passage, that is narrow and short, requires the humility of a bent posture, and is dark and somewhat claustrophobic.

Sacred Geometry
The author, taking a photo, with permission of the Egyptian government, of the original entrance of the Great Pyramid.

This fits the idea of recognizing one’s own weakness, and the weakness of the human race.

Sacred Geometry
The author, crouching in the Great Pyramid’s descending passage, forty feet from the original entrance.

There is eventually a way to attain to the majesty of the Grand Gallery and the solemnity of the Kings Chamber where the empty sarcophagus is, but not without first descending in humility, then, assuming the first ascending passage can be reached, ascending in equal humility for now there is a 26 degree upward slope to contend with while still mediating a narrow and low passage. It is necessary to surrender pride to enter a monument that promises to have the secrets of resurrection, symbolized by the merger to perfection of the macrocosm.

This way into the Great Pyramid, apparently the only way designed by its Architect, is in contrast to the current entrance whereby all visitors now enter the Pyramid, the breach blasted by the will of a medieval caliph.

Sacred Geometry
The two doors into the Great Pyramid. One in the original design, one the result of intrusion.

This intruder entrance is high and horizontal, so requires no humility of posture, no effort of climb, and, symbolically, no union with a polygon of greater dimension. An illegitimate entrance symbolically saying, “I’m good. Can make it on my own. Don’t need anything greater.”

Many claims are made about the profundity of the Great Pyramid and the revelations and prophecies it contains. Is it possible it gives lessons on how to live?


  1. John Romer, in his The Great Pyramid: Ancient Egypt Revisited, writes, “Modern Egyptologists have largely given up on the pyramids.”, p. 3.
  2. For instance, Julian Gray, in chapters 4 and 5 of his book, The Authorship and Message of the Great Pyramid, shows how the equation of light – the time occupied by light in traversing one astronomical unit – is encoded in the Great Pyramid, as is the velocity of light in space!
  3. Mark Lehner, The Pyramid Tomb of Hetepheres and the Satellite Pyramid of Khufu.
  4. Manu Seyfzadeh communication, Thoth’s Blueprint Schemes
  5. Ibid.
  6. David Davidson, The Great Pyramid: Its Divine Message, Kessinger Publishing, Montana, USA., p.127.

Sacred Geometry and the Offset Entrance to the Great Pyramid

Hemiunu, the architect of the Great Pyramid, hides the blueprint

Manu Seyfzadeh, after examining the dimensions of the tomb of Hemiunu (conventionally labeled “G4000”), the architect of the Great Pyramid, calls it a “blueprint” for that mighty structure.(1) In the first building phase of Hemiunu’s tomb Seyfzadeh claims the architect encoded the main external measurements of the Great Pyramid, including its height, side, and the indent of its core masonry. In the second and expanded phase of the architect’s tomb, Seyfzadeh finds encoded some of the interior measurements of “G1”, (a conventional designation for the Great Pyramid), including the dimensions of the Kings Chamber. Seyfzadeh remarks of the connections between Hemiunu’s mastaba (G4000) and G1, “This is powerful evidence that the connection between G4000 and G1 is not only real but was intended because the chance of an unintended random match with respect to all these features is low.” Such conclusions obviate debate over the authorship and dating of the Great Pyramid. It was commissioned by 4th Dynasty pharaoh Khufu, the uncle of his architect Hemiunu.

With this article I would like to add to the connections between the architect of the Great Pyramid and his grand achievement in stone at Giza. I made presentations at the Annual Conference of The American Research Center in Egypt (ARCE) in 2019 and again in 2020 about markings on the East side of the Great Pyramid. This is a large and highly respected Egyptological conference. In 2019 I drew some conclusions about the Trial Passages and the “Third Trial Passage” and their relation to the Great Pyramid. In 2020 I showed how some rather insignificant looking markings on the eastern bedrock pointed to the elements of the Pyramid’s internal passage system. My presentation at the 2020 ARCE session can be viewed here.

Below is a photo of one set of 5 marks (the 5th is divided into 3 sections) east of the Great Pyramid. You can see the base of the Pyramid at the top of the photo. It appeared to me that these were pointers meant to draw attention toward the Great Pyramid. In February and March of 2020 my research team measured these marks, with the main research intent of seeing where they pointed.

Great Pyramid East side markings

After numbering these marks we color coded them, as below:

Markings on the East Side of the Great Pyramid

Here is a composite drawing showing the results of following these lines through to the Pyramid’s interior. There was not one of these pointers that pointed outside the line of the Pyramid’s passages named in red on the results drawing. The blue line on the left from mark #2 points to the southernmost end of the passage system, the end of the “dead end” passage in the Subterranean Chamber. This is a top view of the Great Pyramid with North on the right. Most of the lines from these pointers seemed to be pointing to a specific area in one of the passages.

Resultant angles from 5 East side Great Pyramid markers

As I was laying out these markings on this plan of the Great Pyramid and its satellites, the two boat pits, circled in the drawing below caught my attention:

E-W boat pits east of the Great Pyramid

I sensed they too might be pointing at something… why these odd angles? So when I laid them out, this is what they came to:


Boat pit pointers on the East side of the Great Pyramid

You can see I made a note to myself to check out where this point would be in terms of height on the outside of the Pyramid… I thought there was probably more than chance involved when these two pointers converged exactly on the Southwest diagonal of the Pyramid. With the help of AIP associate, engineer Bob Crielly, we ascertained that the boat pits pointed to the point on the Southwest arris angle that was analogous to the “Notch” which is the widely known and highly visible “opening” on the Northeast arris angle. Here is photo of the Great Pyramid’s “Notch”:

The “Notch” on the Great Pyramid Northeast arris angle.

So the “Notch” and the point on the Southwest arris pointed to by the boat pits formed a square on a top view of the Great Pyramid:

Square formed on the Great Pyramid by the Notch and the boat pointers.


Further examination of this square, created by the boat pits pointings, led to more discoveries. The mysterious air shafts originating in the Kings Chamber, whose purpose has no consensual explanation, both exit the Great Pyramid through this square! The north air shaft exits 3 royal cubits east of the north-south central axis on the Square’s (I will now begin to capitalize mentions of this specific square) north side, and the south air shaft exits 10 royal cubits east of that center line, on the Square’s south side, as seen in the following diagram:

The north side of this special square goes directly over the beginning of one of the most amazing rooms in the world, the Grand Gallery. It is as if the Square is highlighting, or outlining the Grand Gallery and the Pyramid passages beyond this point: the Grand Gallery, the Queens Chamber Passage and Chamber, the Great Step, the antechamber, the Subterranean Passage and Chamber, and of course The Kings Chamber and its relieving chambers, and, of course, the chamber found by the ScanPyramid team’s muons. The passages boxed in are the same ones pointed to by the 5 markers discussed above. This Square thus brings attention to the architectural statement made by the change from the low, stressful confines of the Pyramid’s First Ascending Passage to the glorious uplift of the 7-corbelled, majestic, Grand Gallery, and seems to imply that these are the passages to focus on. The beginning of the Grand Gallery highlighted by the north side of the Great Pyramid Square is pictured below:

The north side of the Great Pyramid Square is directly over the start of the Grand Gallery

As these connections with this Pyramid Square were mounting, it screamed out with intentionality, beyond the serendipity of coincidence. Intentionality? Egyptologist John Romer in uncovering the lifesize blueprint of the Great Pyramid on the bedrock east of that monument, states that the only “sign of genuine intention” can be the symmetry and “harmonies of angle, form, and size” bequeathed by its “surviving architecture.”(2) So what greater proof of intentionality than a connection in the “surviving architecture,” the “angles, form and size” of not just the Pyramid, but the Pyramid in tandem with the tomb of the Pyramid builder? Intentionality squared! Would not this brilliant architect – and apparent cryptographer – have embedded connections between this Pyramid Square and his tomb if it was meaningful? It was the shape and direction of boat pits apparently designed by him that led to the discovery of this Square. The number of connections of major Pyramid elements with this Square would seem to make it a major revelation. Seyfzadeh had opened a door that we wanted to look into. Was there any connection with the tomb of Hemiunu and this Square? This hunch led quickly to geometric indication, one using “angles, form and size.” Below is a Quickbird satellite image of the relevant part of the Giza plateau:

Quickbird Satellite Image of part of the Giza plateau

To the above view we have added the following geometric connections. First we have drawn the Pyramid Square in blue on the Pyramid, which touches all the points we have previously indicated. In red we show the North-South axis of the Pyramid. In black the lines from the boat pits pointing to the southwest corner of the Square are drawn. Yellow diagonals are drawn on the Pyramid to ascertain true center. Notice now the addition of the green lines. The north side of the Pyramid Square lies due East of the north side of Hemiunu’s tomb, and the south side of Hemiunu’s tomb is due west of the exact center of the Pyramid, and the Square itself. And notice the addition of the white line. Since the other boat pits acted as pointers, a line from the south end of the N-S facing southern boat pit on the Pyramid’s east side, lines up directly with the northwest corner of Hemiunu’s tomb, going right through the southwest corner of the Square, the corner pointed to by the east side E-W boat pits. Here then are two distinct and separate indications of connections between Hemiunu’s tomb and the Great Pyramid Square, thus furnishing further evidences of Hemiunu’s intent on showcasing this Square.

G1 and G4000. Geometry explained in the text

There is more. Let’s look again at the two East-West oriented boat pits on the Great Pyramid’s east side that started our notice of the Great Pyramid Square. The odd angle of their separate tilts, when extended, converged on what is the southwest corner of the Square, on the southwest arris angle. But look what happens when the line pointing from the southernmost of the two boat pits is extended… it points directly to the southwest corner of Hemiunu’s mastaba! Southwest to southwest, G1 to G4000, Great Pyramid to Hemiunu! Hemiunu seems intent upon pointing to this Square.

The boat pit pointer which pinpoints the southwest corner of the Great Pyramid Square, when extended, strikes the southwest corner of the Hemiunu tomb, G4000!

This is enough evidence for me to believe that we are beyond chance and coincidence. Hemiunu left clues and connections about the Great Pyramid, connected the his tomb, G4000. And the evidence has not ended yet.

Seyfzadeh, following data from Flinders Petrie, uses the seqed formula to calculate the square area of various course levels of the Great Pyramid in relation to the Pyramid’s base area (SAR, “surface area ratios”), and then converts them to Royal Cubits, the unit the Pyramid was built with. I have seen it happen often that near whole number results are obtained with such conversions. Indeed Petrie seems to pinpoint certain courses which have near whole number ratios in twenty fifths (n/25) to the base area. (Seyfzadeh adds four courses not pinpointed by Petrie, with the thesis that these whole number twenty-fifths seem to signal the coming of a “peak” course, one notably larger than those preceding it.) So for this calculation we will first need the Pyramid course of the Great Pyramid Square. Petrie shows that the two Kings Chamber air shafts exit the Pyramid in the 103rd course:

Part of plate XI from Petrie’s classic work, The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh.

Another indication of the 103rd course is the Notch on the northeast arris angle of the Pyramid. The Notch is listed as being at the 104th course. But we are only interested in the floor of the Notch, which is the very top of the 103rd course. So we will calculate for the area of a side of the 103rd course of masonry of the Great Pyramid.

To calculate the area of the 103rd course, we need to first find its height. That we can take from Petrie’s table listing the height of each course. But as perfect as the Pyramid is, Petrie found the reading of each course height was slightly different depending on what side was measured. He gives the reading for the northeast and southwest corners, so these will be averaged. His reading for the northeast height is 3148.4″ and his reading for the southwest is 3149.5″.(3) Averaged the height is 3148.95″. Converting the inch length to royal Egyptian cubits, using 20.614 inches per cubit yields 152.758 royal cubits (rc). To this I applied the seqed formula, which gives the slope angle of the Pyramid, 11 base run by 14 rise. 152.758 rc times 11/14 equals 120.02 rc. This is then doubled and subtracted from the length of a side of the Great Pyramid, 440 rc. The result is the value we are looking for, the side length of the Great Pyramid Square. This formula is shown below:

Formula Used to Calculate the Side Length of the Great Pyramid Square:
The base of the Great Pyramid, 440 rc,
[the height of course 103: 125.787rc times the seqed of 11/14 (= 120.02 rc) times 2 = 240.04]
199.96 rc.

The result is the near whole number we had anticipated suggesting that the side length of course 103 of the Great Pyramid is very nearly 200 rc. The first thing of interest to me here, is that this calculation has identified a course (the 103rd) which is a nearly even numbered twenty fifth of the base (5/25) but Petrie does not mention it in what appears to be his attempt to identify courses of nearly whole integer fractions of twenty fifths of the base. Indeed he pinpoints the courses which are 1/25 (course 161), 2/25 (143), 4/25 (115), 6/25 (97), 7/25, (89) and 9/25 (73), but leaves out 5/25! Hemiunu certainly has a way of hiding things in plain sight!

I should mention, however, that Seyfzadeh did not miss this. In a highlighted sentence from his paper about these “numerically tagged surface ratios” we are discussing, he writes that the surface area ratios “8/25 and 5/25 are conspicuously absent as integer multiples in the otherwise continuous sequence.” (4) Seyfzadeh then mentions that the numbers five and eight had astronomical, theological and architectural significance during the time Hemiunu lived. He probably had a hand in designing the Pyramid of Menkaure, because of the many evidences of a unified plan at Giza (see our You Tube playlist on “Giza Unified Pyramid Plans“) and that Pyramid’s design is based on a base of eight and a height of five! And we will see another Hemiunu connection to the Menkaure Pyramid coming up. Five and eight are also numbers in the Fibonacci sequence, and we have shown elsewhere that the three main Giza Pyramids are in a Fibonacci Spiral, something which would be nearly statistically impossible by chance. Another likely evidence of Hemiunu influenced design!

It is interesting that the derived base for the 103rd course, our Great Pyramid Square, is very nearly equivalent to the base length of the Menkaure pyramid. Charles Rigano, writing in Pyramids of the Gizeh Plateau, says of Menkaure’s Pyramid, “Based on Petrie’s measurements, the architects intended a pyramid of base length of 200 cubits.”(5) Dr. Mark Lehner, in The Complete Pyramids: Solving the Ancient Mysteries, gives the base lengths as 102.2 and 104.6 meters, which, when converted to royal cubits gives 195.22rc and 199.8rc, or again, very nearly 200 cubits. (6)

With the focus that Hemiunu seems to have had with the Great Pyramid Square, it is not unreasonable to see a connection between it and the base length of Menkaure’s Pyramid. This Square may be a template Hemiunu is intending for us to see. The Great Pyramid Square is nearly the same size as the base of the Pyramid of Menkaure. Is Hemiunu saying that grandson’s Pyramid is a “chip off the old block?” Are there any other manifestations of this 200 rc measure on the Giza Plateau?(7)

Jim Alison has brought together a powerful body of design specifications and measurements for the Great Pyramid and the larger Giza complex. He derives the measure of 2000 rc for the practical width of the Giza Plateau, from the west side of the Menkaure Pyramid to the east side of the Sphinx and Menkaure Valley Temples, as seen in the photo diagram below: (8)

The Giza Plateau is 2000 cubits wide, from Menkaure’s Pyramid on the west to the Valley Temples of the Sphinx and Menkaure on the east.

With the Great Pyramid Square having sides of 200 rc, it can be seen that the width of the Giza Plateau measured from end to end based on the major monuments there, is ten times the length of the Square. It seems Hemiunu gave us hints and pointers to the Great Pyramid Square for a reason. We do not want to disappoint his efforts and from this point on we will no longer call what we have found the Great Pyramid Square. From this time forward, we will be referring to this highly connected Square as the Hemiunu Template.


We are continuing our research with this template. AIP associate, engineer Bob Crielly, has made tentative connections with the Hemiunu Template and much larger areas than just the Great Pyramid and Gizeh. We are checking this work and hope to share it soon. As we refine calculations and press on with these unfolding revelations, we hope to get deeper into the mysteries that Hemiunu seems so plainly to have hidden – in plain sight! Please stay tuned!


  1. Manu Seyfzadeh, “Essential Design of the Great Pyramid Encoded in Hemiunu’s Mastaba at Giza“, Scientific Research, Vol. 6, No. 2, April 2018.
  2. John Romer, The Great Pyramid: Ancient Egypt Revisited, Cambridge University Press, 2007, page 61
  3. Flinders Petrie, The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh, online version:
  4. Manu Seyfzadeh, “Hemiunu Used Numerically Tagged Surface Ratios to Mark Ceilings inside the Great Pyramid Hinting at Designed Spaces Still Hidden Within,” Archaeological Discovery, Vol. 6, 2018, 319-337.
  5. Charles Rigano, Pyramids of the Gizeh Plateau: Pyramid Complexes of Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure, p. 165.
  6. Mark Lehner, The Complete Pyramids: Solving the Ancient Mysteries, Thames and Hudson, 2008, p. 134
  7. Hemiunu’s template also caught on outside the Giza plateau. There are pyramids with base lengths of 200 Egyptian cubits, including Nefir-ir-ka-Re at Abusir, Sen-Usert I at Lisht, Sen-Users III at Dahshur and Amenemhet III at Dahshur.
  8. Jim Alison, “Proposed Design Specifications for the Great Pyramid and the Siteplan of the Giza Plateau”,

Hemiunu, the architect of the Great Pyramid, hides the blueprint

Larry Hunter a Giza Legend

Larry Hunter a Giza Legend:
Larry Hunter, Giza Superstar

Larry Dean Hunter is one of the interesting personalities who has left a footprint in Giza, home to the Great Pyramids and the Great Sphinx. Over the decades, Larry has interfaced with most of the famous Giza personalities, including Dr. Mark Lehner, Zahi Hawass, Robert Bauval, Graham Hancock, John Anthony West, and scores of others. He even scored a whole chapter (Chapter 13, “The Hunter”), in the excellent book about the Giza crowd: GIZA: THE TRUTH: The People, Politics, and History Behind the World’s Most Famous Archaeological Site, by Ian Lawton and Chris Ogilvie-Herald.

Here is the way a former colleague describes Larry:

“Larry Dean Hunter is one of the brightest minds of these last few decades. Born on May 11th, 1950 – a scientist, researcher, inventor and independent Egyptologist… In the village of Nazlet el-Samman, he has celebrity-like status. Walk with Larry down the streets and alleys of the village and you may hear that mantra ‘Laaary … Laaary … Laaary’ filling the air from the voice of people you pass by, including old women and young children. He receives this attention from his keen and compassionate ability to touch the lives of each and every person he meets.” (Giza: The Truth, page 421)

Larry has taken over 40 trips to Giza, where he keeps a small residence and a motorcycle. I really can’t remember how I first had contact with Larry but he has been very helpful to me in my research journeys to Egypt over the years. I should add this small detail: I have never met Larry in person! We have texted, Skyped, emailed, talked on the phone, and interacted so often that I feel like he was my neighbor.

Larry Hunter and Larry Pahl talking

Hunter and Pahl talking

Photos: The author preparing for a 2019 trip to Egypt by talking to Larry Hunter, a seasoned pro in all things Giza.

Check out this video I recorded from my room at the Pyramids Loft hotel in Giza, during my 2019 research tour, to get an idea of how I interacted with Larry.  He was helping me get ready for my hike into the desert the next day, to the point on Egyptian soil corresponding to the Orion shoulder star Belletrix.

Star Chart for the Constellation Orion

I probably shouldn’t admit all of this publicly, because Larry has found a way to get on the bad side of a lot of people, and some might warn me “It’s bad for your career.” Consider that he tried taking to court the world-famous Egyptologist Dr. Zahi Hawass, for breaking part of the shoulder of the Sphinx! Hawass is like the Godfather to Giza and has wielded enormous influence as the former Minister of Antiquities, and still currently a member of the powerful Supreme Council of Antiquities.

National Geographic uses Zahi as the de facto voice for Egypt and has featured Hawass in many of their Egypt documentaries. Larry did not bow to the power of Hawass, because while there is a great reservoir of respect for Hawass in Egypt (and throughout the world) there is also a strong undercurrent among many of the common people of Giza that is anti-Hawass.  Because of Larry’s deep connection with the locals there he stood his ground in trying to get Hawass jailed and subsequently paid a heavy price as many doors formerly open to him began to close, as the signs of an angered powerbroker began to manifest.

But not long ago Larry knew I was going to Egypt soon  and asked me to give a large monetary gift to a poor family in Mena Village (what the locals call the village of Nazlet el Samman) so they could get money for a needed medical procedure. Since there was just a short time before I had to leave, Larry promised to send me the money before I returned, which he did. It was a great blessing to me personally to be so warmly welcomed by Larry’s family in their very humble apartment in Giza, and to experience their great gratitude for the gift. So while I consider many of Larry’s idea about the past really wild and eccentric, I know the good that is in his heart. That is the kind of associate I want in my “career.” The book GIZA: THE TRUTH pulls no punches in its treatment of Hunter, as it chronicles many of his ideas and dealings with an unflattering tone. I wonder how much of the royalties for GIZA: THE TRUTH went to the poor families of Giza.

Larry has been a guest with Art Bell and George Noory, famous alternative radio programs, and has expressed many far out ideas on those shows.  Scroll through some of his work and you will get an idea of his theories that are far outside any mainstream.

In my last blog post I wrote about the mysterious Giza Fibonacci Spiral. Check that out to find out what a mystical, magical, holy experience I had in chasing down the origin to the Fibonacci Spiral that runs through the center of all three Giza pyramids. I would never have found out about that wonderful place if Larry hadn’t steered me toward a book, long out of print, and ready to go the way of hieroglyphs, beautiful but unknown, Final Decoding by Rocky Mcollum. The book’s pages are copies of typewritten script. Finding the book was like finding Einstein’s notes leading to the theory of relativity.

My book ENOCH: Egyptian New Orion Connection Hypothesis would never have been written, all the joy I had in the adventures I enjoyed in chasing down all the stars of the constellation Orion on the soil of Egypt, would never have been experienced if I had not been friends with Larry. Here are links to two of the YouTube videos I made chronicling my journey to the head and shoulder stars of the constellation Orion where they correlate with places on Egyptian soil:

So I thank you here publicly, Larry Hunter, for taking an interest in me when I took my first baby steps with extending the Orion Correlation Theory, for giving me so much helpful guidance.  Now I have written an entire book about all of this, and, as far as I know, I am the only person in the world who has done this!  I am not boasting, I wish there were others I could trade notes with, and communicate with, but all I had in this journey was some phone calls and social media conversations with that enigmatic Giza legend, the man I have never met personally, Mr. Larry Hunter! Thanks again bro…

Larry Hunter a Giza Legend

The Origin of the Giza Fibonacci Spiral

Origin of the Giza Fibonacci Spiral 

fibonacci spiral at giza

Rocky McCallum identified the Fibonacci Spiral that goes through the center of all three pyramids of Giza in a self-published typewritten book, Final Decoding, in the 1970s that just about went the way of hieroglyphics – a beautiful symbolic language that got lost in the rush of history. 

But AIP is reviving Rocky McCallum and the Giza Fibonacci Spiral! We are one of the Champollians of the 21st Century who see the beauty that the designers and architects of Giza certainly saw. A Fibonacci Spiral is not a circle, but a connected series of quadrant curves based on the Golden section. There is no way three independent markers, in this case, the Three Giants of Giza, can be on a Fibonacci Spiral by chance. The placement of the pyramids of Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure was not the random choice of Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure. There was obedience to some superintending plan, a unified plan that superseded three egos.

AIP has done several videos about these many Giza Unified Plans, including our extension of the Orion Correlation Theory, ENOCH, the Egyptian New Orion Connection Hypothesis, and many more. There is undeniable evidence of a master plan for the Giza Plateau, one that is larger than the individual ambitions of individual pharaohs.

YouTube video of Giza Fibonacci Spiral:

In the YouTube video linked above, I identify over ten distinct unified plans for Giza which signal the existence of a pre-existing order for the arrangement of the pyramids, the Sphinx, and other major landmarks at Giza. The specific unified plan of this post, that of the Giza Fibonacci Spiral, is a unique case in that the geometry of the plan – the phi-based Fibonacci Spiral – is also a geometry which Mother Nature uses often as a template.

Do a simple Google search and you will find that all kinds of things in nature, from sunflower heads, star galaxies, nautilus shells and raging storms follow the phi proportions of a Fibonacci Spiral. The YouTube channel Sacred Geometry Decoded even shows how when one of these systems gets off track, when a line of sunflower seeds contracts a cold and veers crookedly, the Fibonacci magic catches it and helps it restore to the pattern of life!

The phi pattern of Fibonacci numbers is given various golden names in its various forms: the Golden Number, Golden Mean, Golden Section. Here is a good explanation of Fibonacci numbers and the Fibonacci Spiral associated with them.

Fibonacci Spiral
Fibonacci Spiral

To me, one of the magic and mystical aspects of the specific Fibonacci Spiral that goes through the center of the 3 Giza giants is that its starting point and ending point are both – unknown! The ending point is unknown because the Spiral keeps spiraling and spiraling, through Giza, Egypt, Africa, the Earth and out into space…infinitely! The beginning point – the origin – of the Giza Fibonacci is ultimately also unknown because it is… infinite… it keeps spiraling down theoretically forever! At least to its creation…

So when I was on a research expedition in Giza, Egypt in February and March 2020, I knew I would have to take a crew to the Origin of the Giza Fibonacci Spiral. To cut to the chase, with much finesse, grit, instinct and “tip money” my team was able to get to the sequestered spot that is the Origin. There is a good chance that many who might try to follow in our footsteps will not be so successful.

Making the calculation of where a Fibonacci Spiral through the Giza pyramids might actually begin would be the first hurdle, but probably many mathematicians could do that. But then mobilizing to get there would require different kinds of skills and dispositions. Mathematics was not the key that opened the physical doors to cleverly the protected origin point.

When I first planned this little Fibonacci foray, I thought I could make it be one of the excursions on the Orion Correlation Tour I was going to lead in Egypt on April 19-25, 2020 (canceled, of course, because of the Coronavirus.). So besides being a fact-finding expedition, it was also going to be a rehearsal or scouting trip for my upcoming tour.

As a fact-finding expedition, I hoped one we would simply follow GPS coordinates to the theoretical beginning of the spiral, make observations about the area, and see if anything presented itself as unusual or significant. But something so mysterious as a Fibonacci Origin did not oblige with a white-coat, laboratory, test tube result.

Because something magical and mysterious took place as we neared the Origin point. 3 white birds flew to us, nearly unafraid of us, and apparently intent on helping us to identify the right spot. Had it not happened to us, I would not believe a story like this.

I grew up in the city of Chicago and birds don’t fly to you. They fly away. They don’t fly over and offer their assistance on your current project! Please check our YouTube video which gives visual evidence to defend my strange claim here, and gives you a small opportunity to enter into the adventure with us.

And it was self-evident, considering all that we went through to get to the beginning point, and what we experienced once there, that this excursion was not franchisable. You can’t have “Journey to the Fibonacci Spiral Origin” listed on a tour itinerary and then take a large group of highly expectant people to a checkpoint where you are told by national police: “You cannot enter here.” That and a hundred other things.

This trip, if I ever lead it again, will be because of serendipity and bold Providence, not because it is a tour stop listed on some high-gloss tour flyer. But if you are reading this, and you ever take a tour with AIP, be sure to buddy up to me after one of our excursions, and ask me for a private attempt to tackle the Journey to the Center of the Giza Fibonacci Spiral. It won’t be listed on the tour schedule!

Know More On Great Pyramid AIP

The Origin of the Giza Fibonacci Spiral

Great Pyramid Blueprint

Egyptologist John Romer says that the builders of the Great Pyramid worked from a blueprint. A large blueprint. Life-sized! He says that, laid out on the East side of the Great Pyramid, is a blueprint created by holes etched in the pavement, which is the actual size of the pyramid itself. He also says that there was a full-sized blueprint template used inside the Great Pyramid.

Great Pyramid Blueprint
Where the Great Pyramid blueprint exists on its East side.

Such large scale guides assured the Pyramid would be properly oriented and level, keeping it from becoming a twisted corkscrew or leaning tower of Pisa.

Great Pyramid Blueprint
Inner Great Pyramid blueprint, John Romer.

But there are also other markers on the East side of the Great Pyramid which are a symbolic blueprint, of sorts, that point to some of the hidden meanings that so much Pyramid lore suggests are there. For instance, there are a series of holes going west from the Trial Passages toward the Pyramid. These points directly to place of the Grotto when viewed as a plan.

Great Pyramid, plan view, north to the right, showing the area of the holes and how they point to the place of the grotto.

The grotto is usually considered an industrial element in the Pyramid, not a critical or meaningful part of its development, but this set of holes seems to be singling it out. The implication is: “Don’t overlook this seemingly ill-formed cavity inside the Pyramid’s bedrock. Pay attention!”

There is another peculiar set of markings on the Pyramid’s East side, which look something like tire tread marks, but in pavement stones, not mud.

Great Pyramid Blueprint
One the East side of the Great Pyramid, near the middle bottom of the photo here, can be seen some of the markers looking like tire treads.

When I was on the Giza Plateau in September of 2019, I took compass readings of the directions to which these markings pointed. I had linked at these markings several times before while on the Plateau, always thinking they looked intentional, interesting. But even when I began measuring the angles they seemed to be facing, I thought to myself, “But these markings are too crude to be able to point to anything specific.” But when I took the measurements back to a computer and drawing table, it was amazing to me what they pointed out! And I began to realize… they really do point more accurately than I was willing to give them credit for. Think of this mark, which you will be reading, most likely, on a computer or phone screen: “/” Does that marking, the simple “/”, point in a certain direction. Assuming your computer displays the same type font with which this is being written, we could both measure the angle of this diagonal (“/”) and we would probably come up with the same degree of its angle, or very close to the same degree. I would submit that if we sent this diagonal to 1,000 literate random users, and asked them to measure its angle from the horizontal base formed by the bottom of the text line it is on, there would be a wide unanimity -within tolerances of the challenges of properly measuring it- of what that angle is…

Without taking a lot of time, I took a protractor and attempted to get the angle of the diagonal above. On my first attempt, I got 105 degrees. What do you get?

So I was ready to believe that while not being laser-accurate, these markings acted as general pointers, the same as if you lifted up your arm, stretched out your index finger, and pointed to a tree, and said, “Hey, look at that tree!” Here are displayed the alignments that my measures produced.

The “tire tread” markings pointed to important parts of the Pyramid’s interior, from a plan view. The top yellow to the beginning of the Grand Gallery, the blue to the end of the Grand Gallery (the Great Step?), the green to the antechamber, and the red to the end of the King’s Chamber.

As can be seen in the graphic, the “tire tread” markings point to important parts of the Pyramid’s interior, from a plan view. The top yellow line seems to point to the beginning of the Grand Gallery, the blue to the end of the Grand Gallery (the Great Step?), the green to the antechamber, and the red to the end of the King’s Chamber. When I saw this I was astounded, really, because it seemed to be too much for coincidence. What it said to me was, “Okay, Romer sees marks here meant to keep the WHOLE pyramid in line, stable, accurate. But these markers then seem to be a commentary of sorts. Now that you have the whole Pyramid going right, what are its important PARTS from a symbolic point of view?”

And so it confirmed for me what I have believed for a long time, because of the work of others, that the Grand Gallery, the Great Step, the Antechamber and the King’s Chamber are an important part of the Great Pyramid’s meaning. They must be interpreted. They are one of the main reasons this Pyramid was built. It also seemed to say that while there may be other chambers or cavities in this Mighty Structure, these are still the important ones. You can see some YouTube videos I made on these markings:

Please let me know what you think about these markers!

Great Pyramid Blueprint

Welcome to the AIP

Welcome to the AIP!

The Great Pyramid AIP contains secrets and mysteries waiting to be deciphered and understood.  That is the firm belief of the American Institute of Pyramid Research.

The American Institute of Pyramid Research was founded to continue the work of The Institute of Pyramidology in Harpenden, England, when it came to a sudden end at the tragic death of James Rutherford.  James and his father Adam had built a worldwide following through their regular newsletters and publications, most notably the four volume Pyramidology set, available now from Amazon. (It had been out of print and unavailable for decades).

Adam Rutherford spent hundreds of slavish hours measuring and studying the Great Pyramid, and his measurements are still used by many researchers (though most Egyptologists prefer the measurements of Flinders Petrie… more on that in another post…) Rutherford claimed that the Great Pyramid contains divine revelations through the media of geometry and stone, similar to the way prophecy contains revelations in words. Both need interpretation. Many Egyptologists label the work of Rutherford, and others in this tradition, as “pyramidiots.” For those who take their marching orders for meaning and truth from Egyptologists, you need read no farther. You have your verdict.

I was always taught that when one resorts to ad hominems in debate (and to state the obvious, when someone calls someone else a “pyramidiot” that is an ad hominem) one is tacitly conceding.  Rational discourse has ended. While I respect the work of Egyptologists, and benefit from Egyptology in the same way I do all scientific attempts to uncover the past, it does not entirely encompass my human capacity in the search for meaning. While Egyptologists study religion and metaphysics, they do not engage in religion and metaphysics. Egyptology is a hard, empirical science, not a metaphysical religion.  The American Institute of Pyramid Research on the other hand, does not out of hand dismiss metaphysics.  While we do support all scientific efforts to expound the wonders of the Pyramid, we do not hide or deny the fact that we believe there is evidence that the Great Pyramid, through sacred geometry,  prophetic timelines, inspired architectural planning and hidden symbolism contains divine revelations.


photo: AIP Director at the Mena House, on a recent study tour of Egyptian pyramids. This is where Adam Rutherford stayed when he did his research on the Great Pyramid

At the AIP we continue to keep alive in this world the idea that there are truths of eternal value to be found in the Great Pyramid of Giza, the only one of the 7 Wonders of the Ancient World still standing.

Please read through our blog posts and visit our YouTube Channel for some of our recent discoveries.

Larry Pahl,
AIP Director.

Feel free to email me: AIP Director

Welcome to the AIP

You don’t need Egypt! – The Great Pyramid (AIP)

You don’t need Egypt! – The Great Pyramids (AIP)

The Great Pyramids

As AIP Director I have been on several study tours of the great pyramids in Egypt. It is certainly exciting to be in a foreign country, exploring new sites, riding on camels and trying new food. And you can certainly see things in person that will never look the same as they do on a page in a book.

I remember the night before I was to go into the King’s Chamber of the Great Pyramid for the first time, I could hardly sleep in my room at the Mena House. I was within sight of that grand monument which I had read about for decades, but now I was soon to enter it, and its grandest room, the King’s Chamber. Morning couldn’t come soon enough.  And when that moment finally came, and I was inside the famous corridors of the Pyramid, exploring its mysterious chambers, I felt like I had been there before. Because I had been there before, through so many photos and images of the mighty monument I had seen in the past.

My explorations inside of the Great Pyramid were limited to one hour. (The picture here is me at the empty coffer, the only furnishing in the King’s Chamber.) It is very hard to get the clearance that I received to be able to spend that hour. It was thrilling, and over quickly!  And yet you can spend hours, days, months and years in the Pyramid through the pages of the thousands of books which have been written about it.  You can explore all its chambers, learn of their measurements, browse their history, get an erudite guide and never worry about your “hour” coming to an end!

So if your goal is to really get to know the Great Pyramid, and to try to muscle closer to the secrets of this Silent Sage, don’t book a tour to Egypt.  Book a book. Now the problem you have won’t be finding the money for a tour, and finding the best tour groups that go to the pyramids, your problem will be, “Which books do I read?”  And I am afraid that for this search, there are no shortcuts or easy choices.  I’ll give you a bit of a guide soon, but first, let’s look at “What’s so great about the Great Pyramid?”.

You don’t need Egypt! – The Great Pyramid (AIP)

What’s so great about the Great Pyramid of Giza?

What’s so great about the Great Pyramid of Giza?

So what’s so great about the Great Pyramid?

Let’s look at a variety of ways that the Great Pyramid of Giza sets itself apart as one of the greatest marvels of all time.

It is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still standing. That’s pretty amazing…

Gone is the Statue of Zeus, the Colossus of Rhodes, the Lighthouse of Alexandria, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Temple of Artemis, the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus. Only the Great Pyramid is still with us.

Great Pyramid of Giza

It is one of the oldest structures on the face of the earth and arguably the best built. Its mortar joints are consistently 1/50 of an inch, thinner than a sheet of paper! Sir William Flinders Petrie declared that this craftsmanship could be compared to the “finest opticians’ work on a scale of acres.”  Consider that there are hundreds of thousands of stones that make up the Pyramid, none weighing less than a ton, most weighing about two and a half, and some as much as 20 tons! The Pyramid covers over 13 acres of ground and is almost entirely solid masonry, not hollow or earth-filled like the Central American pyramids. Building it today would stress even the best construction cranes and the best and largest private construction companies, their most talented artisans and their best engineers… and it would be too expensive to build!

The Great Pyramid is uniquely situated on our planet. Joseph Seiss claims that the Pyramid lies in the center of gravity of the continents. Many others say that it also lies in the exact center of all the land area of the world, dividing the earth’s land mass into approximately equal quarters. The north-south axis (31 degrees east of Greenwich) is the longest land meridian, and the east-west axis (30 degrees north) is the longest land parallel on the globe. There are only two places that these longest land-lines of the terrestrial earth can cross. One is in the Pacific Ocean, and the other just happens to be at the Great Pyramid! This fact alone is – incredible!

Great Pyramid of Giza

This is not the only intimate connection between the Pyramid and the planet on which it sits. In his fascinating narrative in Secrets of the Great Pyramid, Peter Tompkins lays out the historical and geometric evidence that the Pyramid is a geographic representation of earth’s northern hemisphere.  That could only be true if the ancient Egyptians had knowledge of the size and shape of the earth. It can now be established scientifically that these Egyptians knew the shape of the earth “to a degree not confirmed till the eighteenth century when it was established that Newton was correct in his theory that the planet was somewhat flattened at the poles, and they knew the size of the earth to a degree not matched till the middle of the nineteenth century…” (Tompkins, 211)

For the Pyramid to be a replica of the northern hemisphere, there must be a relationship between the measurements of the Pyramid and those of the earth. The Egyptian government sent J.H. Cole to measure the base of the Pyramid in 1925 and he found that twice the perimeter of the Great Pyramid’s base was 1,842.91 meters. The modern figure for a minute of latitude at the equator is 1,842.9 meters.  Thus, each base side of the Pyramid is equal to 1/8 minute of a degree, and thus twice the perimeter would be equal to almost exactly one minute of latitude on planet earth!

Great Pyramid of Giza
In a recent article Keith Hunter also makes a case that baseline of the Pyramid was determined by the builders from the relationship of the elliptical arc between the Pyramid itself in Giza, and the equator. Again, the Egyptians would have to have known that distance to design the mighty structure. Hunter says the designers took 1/14400 of the distance of that arc, based on the 144,000 polished limestone blocks which originally covered the entire pyramid, making the Pyramid appear as a shining diamond with the bright sun reflecting off of it.   Many of those beautifully polished casing stones were knocked loose in a 14th century earthquake, and then the rest were removed by enterprising builders who used them to build many of the mosques in Egypt! The Great Pyramid is now “naked” having lost all the glittering stones that once covered it, and the second great pyramid in Giza shows just a few weathered ones remaining at its top.

great about the Great Pyramid

Despite being one of the oldest structures on the face of the earth, the Great Pyramid has been called one of the most accurately oriented, its four sides facing almost exactly due north, south, east, and west. The Paris Observatory, symbol of Enlightened man’s advancement by science instead of superstition and religion, is six minutes of a degree off true north. The Great Pyramid is only three minutes deviant, and E. Raymond Capt claims that is due mainly to subsidence. There are architects and engineers who have studied the Pyramid’s structure and contend that, with all our vaunted technological prowess, we could not build the structure today. Does the theory of evolution run in reverse?

We will leave for later posts the geometrical evidence in the Pyramid that it is not a dead tombstone, but a living Prophet, in the unique way it combines length and time. We thought that only modern Einsteinian physics combined space and time, but long before Newton the Silent Sage was blending them!

What could explain this intimate relationship between the measures of the Great Pyramid and the dimensions of the Earth?  How could the ancient Egyptians have known something that history says was not to enter the annals of man for 4000 years, during the Age of Enlightenment?  The answer to this question depends on which school of pyramidology answers it…

What’s so great about the Great Pyramid of Giza?

Be true to your school!

Be true to your school! 

Be true to your school


Be true to your school: Two thousand years after the Great Pyramid was built, the Greek historian Herodotus, known as the “father of history,” revived the study of that Mighty Wonder. From that time to this, there has been controversy over its meaning and symbolism. In our day, opinions about the Pyramid fall into three schools, roughly sketched below.

Be true to your school:

  • “Pyramidiots”. This is the unflattering name given to those who believe the Great Pyramid is a revelation from a divine source, from the Creator. Those in this school say the plans for its building came from prophets who were in touch with the Divine will. One of the most distinguished scholars in this group was the Astronomer Royal for Scotland, C. Piazzi Smyth,(with Newton, Darwin and Einstein) a member of the Royal Society. Smyth, in his book Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid (1864) claimed that the measurements he obtained from the Great Pyramid of Giza indicated a unit of length, the pyramid inch, equivalent to 1.001 British inches, that could have been the standard of measurement by the pyramid’s architects. Smyth claimed that the pyramid inch was a God-given measure handed down through the centuries from the time of Noah, and that the architects of the pyramid could only have been directed by the hand of God.  Adam Rutherford, who directed the Institute of Pyramidology, and wrote a 4 volume set entitled “Pyramidology,” is another leading “pyramidiot.”  Zahi Hawass regularly uses this term to dismiss any findings from this school. It is a generally undeserved ad hominem because of the serious and rational scholarship from many researchers in this group. But the Christian perspective of most of these authors dooms them to contempt from secular scholars.
  • Esotericists or “Theosophists.” The centerfold of this school would be current authors of widely circulated books speculating on the meaning of the Sphinx, the pyramids, and related matters, especially Robert Bauval and Graham Hancock, authors Fingerprints of the Gods and The Message of the Sphinx. Students and scholars in the Esotericist School believe the wisdom built into the Great Pyramid came from an intelligence not now present, either from a fallen former super-civilization, like Atlantis, or from intelligent aliens, gods from outer space who visited earth in an ancient past. Bauval and Hancock work from the standpoint that a great intelligence from the past has been lost, but they never directly posit intelligent aliens. But that implication – that highly intelligent alients built the Pyramids – is always there to be drawn by those millions who buy their books and follow their work.
  • Egyptologists. This is the modern priesthood of pyramid knowledge, the small cadre of scholars holding doctorates in fields relating to ancient Egyptian history, language and religion. Modern Egyptologists believe the Great Pyramid was built by Egyptians in conventionally calculated historical times, and the Pyramid’s metrics, symbolism and meaning must all be interpreted from the religious beliefs of the Egyptians held at the time of the Pyramid’s construction. The most famous face of this group would be Dr. Zahi Hawass, who oversaw Egypt’s antiquities before the 2011 Egyptian revolution. While Hawass does not have an outstanding reputation as an honest scholar among many Egyptologists and Esotericists (Bauval regularly slams his scholarship and honesty), his enthusiasm for things Egyptian has captured the hearts of devoted followers around the world who see him on National Geographic specials, and in the news.

I participated in two tours of the major Egyptian pyramids with Dr. Hawass in 2014 and 2015, and appreciate his defense of the Egyptian authorship of these grand monuments. He honored me by asking me to sit with him at the banquet that was held at the end of our tour, and someone snapped a grainy picture of us sitting together:

With Dr. Hawass at banquet
Above: Dr. Hawass invited me to sit with him at a banquet at the Mena House, 2015
Hawass and Pahl at Sphinx 2015
AIP Director Larry Pahl with Hawass at the Sphinx, 2015

The most elite of these three schools – the hardest to get into – is the Egyptology school. Here are some of the hefty admission requirements:

  1. You must be accepted into a PhD program at a major university. That’s hard!
  2. You must have the money to pay expensive tuition for many years. (Robert Bauval continues to insist that Dr. Zahi Hawass, and another widely known Egyptologist, Dr. Mark Lehner, were both given financial assistance to pay for their PhD work from an esotericist group, The A.R.E., a group focusing on the wild and weird prophecies of the “sleeping prophet”, Edgar Cayce!)
  3. And now for the biggest hurdle: you have to accept
    • the major foundations of the accepted Egyptian chronology (even though there are countless evidences of where it was wrongly constructed in the formative years of modern Egyptology),
    • the required skeptical and negative academic attitude toward esoteric and metaphysical interpretations
    • your worldview must be constrained and defined by the existing Egyptological establishment

It’s easier to join the first Be true to your school because it allows its students freedom of conscience and belief.  The “Pyramidiots” largely believe that the Pyramid is a divine revelation, the other two groups don’t. Egyptologists are largely empiricists.  The one way they might be said to acknowledge God is when they write about the many gods the ancient Egyptians believed in, and analyze their religious systems. The Esotericists might be willing to conjecture that the apparent geometric marvels of the Pyramid are the result of knowledge lost with Atlantis or some other highly advanced but now destroyed civilization, but they would belittle the possibility that God used prophets to direct the building of the Great Pyramid in the way that some believe God directed Noah to build the ark. They are willing to exercise their muscles of hope for unseen Atlanteans, but not for unseen divine prophets.

Similarly to the classification scheme proposed here for the schools that study the Great Pyramid, we have recently identified the 3 schools that surround the issue of ancient high technology. 

  1. The traditional Egyptologists
  2. Those who believe aliens built the ancient monuments, and
  3. Those who believe Atlantis, or a similar collapsed ancient civilization authored the artifacts which display high technology.

Is there evidence of ancient high technology in Egypt, and how is that evidence interpreted? In 2020 we described those schools here, and gave examples from their various practitioners here.

While there have been a wide range of sympathizers to the idea of divine inspiration in the Great Pyramid, from a variety of slants, including Sir Isaac Newton (I have studied his Dissertation upon the Sacred Cubit… in the rare book room of the University of Chicago’s Regenstein Library, in which he deduced a sacred and profane cubit.) it might be helpful to look at the man who could be said to have sparked its modern consideration,  John Taylor.  Be True to your school, Taylor’s book entitled, The Great Pyramid: Why Was It Built and Who Built It?  was published in 1859, the same year that Darwin published The Origin of Species.  The similar timing of these two seminal works seems providential in that they propose singularly opposing views on the origin, and ultimately the purpose, character, and destiny of the human race.

Given these gigantic stakes, what were Taylor’s findings and conclusions? See our next post

Follow the Great Pyramid 🙂

Be true to your school!

Darwin of the Sage – The Great Pyramid

Darwin of the Sage

The works of John Taylor and Charles Darwin in 1859 were epochal. Taylor points to divine, Darwin of the sage to natural explanation of origins. The struggle between these divergent and irreconcilable viewpoints spawned what has become a gigantic realignment of the core Western worldview: God is no longer the assumed, default foundation for meaning. Really this is more than just a realignment of the West. The entire history of the world is people groups revolving around their God, their theology, and their common religious practices.  Atheism was largely unknown on planet Earth until the 20th Century. The Industrial Revolution was the new Grand Inquisitor elevating the gods of efficiency, mechanization and its service of creature comforts, snuffing out slowly, methodically, every metaphysical spark, sucking dry any connections to eternity, a perfecting of the inevitable unified theorem: “Time is money.”

But. John Taylor. As I write this, it is March 14, which officially in America, since 2009, is “Pi Day.”

Drawin SageIt was John Taylor who first proposed, in his book The Great Pyramid: Why Was it Built? and Who Built it?, the idea that the number π (pi) was incorporated into the design of the Great Pyramid. He found that dividing the perimeter of the Pyramid by its height, equals 2π.  Since a circle’s radius is related to its circumference by that same number (2π) Taylor thought perhaps the Great Pyramid was intended to be a representation of planet Earth, the height corresponding to the radius joining the center of the Earth to the North Pole and the perimeter corresponding to the Earth’s circumference at the Equator.  Scotland’s Astronomer Royal, Charles Piazzi Smyth, picked up on this concept, spent considerable personal wealth in measuring the Great Pyramid to confirm and champion it, along with other ideas from Taylor’s book, such as the antiquity and divinity of the cubit as a measure. So much so, that a movement was formed which battled back against the steam roller of godless efficiency and said no! to its ultimate symbol: the metric system.  A totally rational man-made system of measures, easily manipulable by tens, initially based on a meridian through Paris, capitol of the Enlightenment, who would deny it worldwide takeover?

John Taylor. Charles Piazzi Smyth. Britain and America said no. They said no to the metric system, when everybody else was saying yes, because they believed that the builders/designers of the Great Pyramid had a connection with the Creator, the Creator had given the cubit, the cubit was used in the Great Pyramid’s design, and the English system of measures – the foot, inch, the pound, the acre – was descended from the cubit. The metric system had no such divine connection but was a creation of the Enlightened mind.  So this battle of which measuring system to use was another manifestation of the Darwin – Taylor stand-off. Naturalism and its pinnacle, the mind of man, juxtaposed to Intentional Design from the mind of a Creator.

So on this Pi Day, let me meditate out loud about π, in a way to strike back against the onslaught of skepticism grounded in empiricism, the unique modern conceit. π is an infinite number.  It never ends, can never be finally calculated, goes on and on in endless song. It is what mathematicians call an “irrational” number. Perfect!  It is only irrational because they cannot contain it, turn it into a simple fraction. They cannot define and control it. But a wonderful characteristic of this “infinite” number is that it is used practically all the time, not just to calculate circumferences or diameters, but to help establish normal probability distribution, and to allow “signal processing” which basically converts a signal to a frequency spectrum, thus allowing, for instance, your cell phone to communicate with a cell tower. π is infinite, yet can yield practical results by being operationalized to 22/7 or 3.14.

π, at the center of the construction of the Great Pyramid, is a perfect symbol for the Silent Sage. The Sage is mysterious, “irrational”, yet one of the world’s most visible, recognized and beloved monuments. The Pyramid, like π, embodies a higher wisdom from the ancient past. It can be said of the Sage drawin like the heavens talked about in Psalm 19:

Day after day it pours forth speech;
    night after night it reveals knowledge.
3  It uses no speech, it uses no words;
    no sound is heard from it.
Yet its line goes out into all the earth,
    these nonword “words” to the ends of the world.

Follow us on The Great Pyramid.

Darwin of the Sage – The Great Pyramid

The Sage Presents the Path of Life

The Sage Presents the Path of Life

The Sage Presents the Path of Life, A Middle-Eastern guru commandingly told people to “Follow me!”  What confidence! And perhaps impudence? It has been said that people are sheep, and they seem to seek out other people whom they may follow.

Path of Life
Aristotle’s Philosophy

What is the right path to life, and who has it?  The unified mantra today is, “there is no right path, every person sets their own truth.” There you go.  No need to consult Mohammad, or Socrates or Lincoln or Mother Teresa. Your god is within. Aristotle begins the Nicomachean Ethics by basically saying that everyone is doing what is right. All actions tend toward the good.  Since we are all defining our own truth, then all is well, and we need to search no further.  Utopia has arrived. How wonderful!


Except that we all know that utopia has not arrived.  School shootings.  Cancer.  Coronavirus. Deadly gas in Syria.  Not everything that everyone sets out to do is right.  So you are wrong on that point, Aristotle. Not all actions tend toward the good. Some actions are stupid, some wrong, some downright evil, some cruel and despicable.  Some are misguided, some nonchalant, some purposeless and some random. Some are induced by drugs, others by meditation, peer pressure, psychoses, dementia, and some by cold calculation. So back to our initial inquiry.

What is the right path to life, and who has it?

Our social media accounts, including this blog, Instagram, YouTube, Tumblr, Twitter, Facebook and the web all follow the AIP statement of purpose, which is :

“The AIP exists to explore, research and ultimately decipher the higher intelligence that is embedded in the geometry, astronomy, mathematics and symbolism of many pyramids around the world, especially the pyramids in Egypt and Giza specifically.”

Path of Life
AIP Director Larry Pahl in front of the Great Pyramid, north side, 2019. “The revelations of this Mighty Giant bring me joy!”

The AIP exists to vigorously pursue all legitimate lines of inquiry about the world’s pyramids, especially the Great Pyramid, including geometrical, arithmetic, philosophical, theological, symbolic, geologic, sociological, astronomical and chronological. When we say we search for the “philosophical, theological, [and] symbolic” aspects of the Great Pyramid and others, it is another way of saying we are searching for meaning.  Purpose.  Is there a hidden prescription for right living here? Is there a revelation of a divine way or some divine secrets meant to ease and ultimately best exploit human effort?  Is there a Heaven to strive for in the future or realize in the present, now? Independent researchers seem often to imply that the intimations of truth we draw from the historic record are somehow wiser or more important the older they are. More aging means better wine. A source of revelation used by all the ancient civilizations is that of the heavens, the heavenly bodies, the constellations and the stars that comprise them.  The oldest source of revelation is the sky itself.  Here is an AIP video about the meaning of the constellations and their relationship to the Great Pyramid.

We don’t say it openly often, but here, in the final paragraph of a post about the “Path of Life”, we are going to say it loud and clear. We are going to answer the question posed twice in this post and answered in its title: We think the Sage teaches the way of life.  If you follow along, as social media allows, our journey in following the Sage, you will find that we occasionally drop gems we know we have found in this Sage.  Not all at once. Not all in one place. Because that’s not the way He works. But following us, as we follow and interpret Him, will lead, we think, to green pastures, to blessing and enlightenment. Stay with us!

The Sage Presents the Path of Life