The Meter of the 4th Dynasty

Following is a paper copyrighted by William Verhart of Madrid, Spain, received by AIP for review. We are publishing the piece here for the review of others. The sole copyright for the piece is with Mr. Verhart.

The paper claims that the ancient Egyptians knew of the meter, a measure we thought was devised by Napoleon’s Enlightened savants based on their indirect calculation of the 1/10,000,000 part of a meridian through Paris.

Apparently, as has happened so often, the deceit of modernity is trumped by the genius of the supposed ignorant races from the past. Mr. Verhart’s brilliant piece begins below.


Almost all countries in Europe use the unit of length the meter. In the United States, Panama and the United Kingdom, the unit of length is the yard. We know the value of the yard in meters and vice versa. But is it possible to reflect these two units of length in a geometric figure or in a mathematical formula, so that people who do not know either the meter or the yard can know which units of length have been used? 

Well, it’s possible. We can construct a rectangular prism and through its measurements we can know which unit of length has been used and what value it has in meters. This prism corresponds to a specific statement that fixes its dimensions, both internal and external. It only works with units of length whose value in meters we know.

So, in summary, we can say:  Let’s build a rectangular prism whose measurements reveal the unit of length used and its value in meters without having to know the meter or the value of the unit of length used.  

The statement would be the following:

1.         The outer length would be twice the outer width

2.         The inner length corresponds to twice the unit of length used

3.         The inner width is the inverse of the outer width

4.         The outer height is also the inverse of the outer width

5.         The inner volume is half the outer volume

6.         The relationship between the outer height and the inner height is equal to the numerical value in meters of the outer length 

(Since the inside width is the inverse of the outside width, the numerical value of the outside width will be equal to or greater than 1 (one) but smaller or equal to the cube root of 2 (two), namely 1.25992104989 .., otherwise the value of the high interior would be greater than the outer height. This does not mean that the prism can be applied only to a small number of measures of length, since you only have to divide the measure used by a certain number to obtain a value that is located between 1 and 1.2599210 …)

Each unit of length will thus have its own prism.   You can build a rectangular prism with the first five points of the statement. This prism, by not including point 6, would not  reflect the value in meters of the unit of length used. This prism would have this form:

            Table 1            —   THE THEORETICAL PRISM

Measures Value (of measure b)
Outer length 2 ab
Inner length 2b
Outer width ab
Inner width b/a
Outer height b/a
Inner height 0,5 a2b

Where a is the numerical value of the chosen unit of length (if, for example, the outer width corresponded to 1.4 Cubits, then its numeric value would be 1.4) and b the unit of length chosen. 

If we include point 6, then the value in meters of the chosen unit of length would always be reflected in the relations of the prism.

The formulas for this rectangular metric prism are obtained through the following equation: 

Outer length = outer height / inner height  =

 =                                                                           2ab  =  (b/a)  / 0.5 a2b

therefore,                                                              2a4b2  =   2b

and therefore                                                        b  =  a4b2

from where it is deduced                                    b  =  1 / (root4)a

We can  obtain now the formulas that determine the six sides of the prism using any unit of length, whose value  in meters we know:

            Table 2

Dimensions Units of length b
Outer length 2 / (root4)a
Inner length 2
Outer width 1 / (root4)a
Inner width (root4)a
Outer height (root4)a
Inner height 1 / (2√ a)

where “a” is the value in meters of the unit of length chosen and “b” is the unit of length chosen.  

If we want, as an example, to combine the meter and the yard in this prism, the steps to follow would be the following: 

The English yard equals 0.9144 meters; therefore the numerical value of the outer width would be, in yards:

1 /(root4)a  =  1 /(root4) 0,9144  =  1.022623916809237

The values ​​of the prism would be, following the statement, then (in yards): 

            Table 3 – Mathematical prism using the “yard”

Dimensions Yards
Outer length 2.04524783361848
Inner length 2
Outer width 1,02262391680924
Inner width 0.97787660112641
Outer height 0.97787660112641
Inner height 0,52287983761514 

In this case, the outer capacity is equal to:  2.04524783361848 x 1.02262391680924 x 0.97787660112641 =  2.04524783361848

And the inner volume is equal to:  2 x 0.97787660112641 x 0.52287983761514 =  1.02262391680924 

Exactly half of the outer volume.

The product between the value of the outer width and the inner width is equal to 1.0000000000. 

In meters the values ​​of the prism would be the following ones (we multiply the values ​​of the previous table by the value in meters of the yard):

            Table 4

Dimensions Meters
Outer length 1.87017461906074
Inner length 1.8288
Outer width 0.93508730953037
Inner width 0.89417036406999
Outer height 0.89417036406999
Inner height 0.47812132351527

But thanks to this mathematical form the relation between the outer height and the inner height is equal to the numerical value of the outer length in meters:

0.89417036406999 / 0.47812132351527 = 1.87017461906074   

0.97787660112641 / 0.52287983761514 = 1.87017461906074 

And the result of the division between the inner length with the outer length, to the fourth (exponent 4), gives as a result the value of the English yard.


—————————     =   0.91440000000 meters


(2 / 2.04524783361848)4  =  0.91440000000 meters

With these characteristics, the unit of length used and its value in meters will always be present in this rectangular prism. Any unit of length can be recognized in a prism of these characteristics, as long as we know its value in meters. The statement is fulfilled only with the measures expressed in the unit of length chosen, since converted to the metric system, not all elements of the statement are met (3 and 4), as the value of the inner width is the inverse of the outer width. 

Such a prism could be very useful for future generations to know the units of measurement of our current civilization. And the ancient civilizations would leave a great legacy demonstrating to future civilizations their units of measurement in use. 

Did any civilization before ours know the mathematical properties of a prism like that? 

During the fourth dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian Empire, Hordjedef, son of Khufu and half-brother of Khafre,, had a sarcophagus built, with the shape of a rectangular prism, with the same characteristics as our rectangular prism before mentioned. 

The measures of the sarcophagus, which is currently in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo (catalogued with the number 54,938-6193), are the following (data of D. Manuel J. Delgado):    

Sarcophagus of Djedefre

            Table 5  –  Sarcophagus of Hordjedef (in meters)

Dimensions Meters
Outer length 2.45
Inner length 2.09
Outer width 1.23
Inner width 0.89
Outer height 0.89
Inner height 0.72

To know if this sarcophagus includes the statement shown, we will study these measures. 

The first observations are the following: 

  1. The outer length is almost twice the outer width (2.45/1.23 = 1.99186 …) – the difference of one centimetre is probably due to the possible wear of the stone after 4,500 years, to blows or a bad measurement
  2. The outer volume is twice the inner volume: 2.45 x 1.23 / 2.09 x 0.72 = 2.0025.
  3. The inner length corresponds to 4 Royal Cubits of 0.524 meters each
  4. The relationship between the outer height and the inner height is equal to half the numerical value in meters of the outer length

These 4 observations are almost conclusive to ensure that this sarcophagus is based on the same statement as the mathematical prism. 

To know the value in meters of the unit of length used (a), we will have to use the formula on page 4, taking into account that the inner length corresponds to 4 units of the Royal Cubit, instead of 2 Royal Cubits:

1 (root4)/ a  =  1.23 /  2 a

whose value, 2a, would have to be half the inner length 4a. 

The value of “a” would then be:

2a  =  1.23 (root4)  a  =  1.045996…

which would correspond almost exactly to two units of the unit of length used. The unit of length used is, as we have said, the Royal Cubit of 0.524 meters.  

Consequently, the builders of the sarcophagus supposedly used the unit of measurement “one Royal Cubit”, but they gave the definitive form of the sarcophagus multiplying all its measures by two, to have a prism in the form of a coffin where a Pharaoh could fit.

 Therefore, the measurements of the sarcophagus, for the Egyptians, would be the following:

            Table 6 – Mathematical prism using the unit “two Royal Cubits”

Dimensions Unit “2 Royal Cubits”
Outer length 2.35
Inner length 2.00
Outer width 1.17
Inner width 0.85
Outer height 0.85
Inner height 0.69

These data confirm (despite the two decimals) that the prism meets the special characteristics for the statement to be fulfilled: 

1)         The outer length is twice the outer width and the outer volume is twice the inner   volume.

2)         The inner width is the inverse of the outer width (always in the original unit of      measurement).

3)         The inner length corresponds to 2 times the unit of measurement “Two Royal        Cubits”.

4)         The relationship between the outer height and the inner height is equal to the         numerical value of the outer width in meters (being the unit of length “two”    Royal Cubits, instead of “one” Royal Cubit, the ratio between the outer height       and the inner height corresponds to the outer width in stead of the outer length).

If the statement is fulfilled, then the builders of the Hordjedef sarcophagus knew the meter. 

Indeed, since the outer width gives the value in meters of the unit of measurement used, namely the Royal Cubit:  

(1 / 1.17) 4  =  0.524 meters  

And it is also verified when applying the relationship between the outer height and the inner height: 

0.85 / 0.69 = 1.23 meters

which gives the value in meters of the outer width.  

It is plausible that the Egyptians could have built a sarcophagus with the exposed statement, but it seems impossible that by “chance” they chose a value that would indicate exactly the value in meters of the Royal Cubit.    The definition of the meter, introduced by the French in the 18th century, was a completely mathematical expression, and therefore, it is not surprising that the Egyptians themselves did the same in their time. Today we know that ancient civilizations had knowledge much higher than normally accepted.

To reconstruct the sarcophagus of Hordjedef as accurate as possible, we are going to fix, for the moment, the value of the Royal Cubit in 0.524 meters, a value given by most scholars of the subject, including the Egyptologists.  The values ​​of the sarcophagus should then have been the following:  

Table 7  –   Values of the sarcophagus of Hordjedef in  meters

Measures Value
Outer length 2.4635 meter
Inner length 2.0960 meter
Outer width 1.2317 meter
Inner width 0,8916 meter
Outer height 0.8916 meter
Inner height 0.7239 meter

But, the value in meters of the outer width of 1.2317 meters is very close to the value of 4 Egyptian or Geographic Feet of 0.3079 meters, each one, corresponding to the 1/100 part of the value of one second of arc in the latitude of the Great Pyramid (29.979 … degrees North). An Egyptian or Geographical Foot corresponds to 2/3 of a Geographical Cubit of 0.4618 meters. The exact value for a Geographical Foot at the latitude of the Great Pyramid is 0.3079235 .. meters.

These data indicate that the Egyptians certainly knew the mathematical form of the Earth and its exact dimension (which would confirm their knowledge about the meter). 

The verification of the existence of an Egyptian Foot is very important.

All monuments in Egypt, which are part of the Old Kingdom, with more than 4,200 years old, are not in their original state because of many factors. Many monuments have even disappeared over the course of time. This necessarily means that talking about measures from the old empire is a very sensitive issue. Even so, monuments, large and small, are preserved, which provide us with enough information to be able to ensure that the aforementioned measures of the Hordjedef sarcophagus are not invented but real measures. 

Different measurements of the sarcophagus of Hordjedef, are also found in the other three sarcophagi from the Giza complex (all from the Fourth Dynasty). We can observe the following coincidences (the value of the outer height of Menkaure is equal to the value of the outer height of Hordjedef, namely 0.891 meters, its value corresponds to two Small Cubits):  

Table 8  –  Measures of the Sarcophagi of Khufu, Khafre  and Menkaure*

Measures Khufu Khafre Menkaure
Outer length 2.293 m 2.633 m 2.463 m
Inner length 1.985 m 2.150 m 1.847 m
Outer width 0.983 m 1.065 m 0.935 m
Inner width 0.678 m 0.676 m 0.600 m
Outer height 1.048 m 0.965 m 0.891 m
Inner height 0.839 m 0.750 m 0.616 m

     * Data obtained from the books of Flinders Petrie and André Pochan.  

1)         The outer length of Menkaure is equal to the outer length of Hordjedef (2.46         meters)

2)         The outer height of Menkaure corresponds to the outer height of Hordjedef (0.89 meters = 2 Small Cubits)

3)         The sum of the outer lengths of Khufu and Khafre is equal to the sum of the          outer lengths of Hordjedef and Menkaure (2.293 + 2.633 = 2.463 + 2.463)

4)         The inner height of Menkaure corresponds to two Geographical Feet (0.616           meters)

5)         The value of the outer length of Khafre corresponds to 10 Geographical Feet         minus 1 Small Cubit (3.079 – 0.4457 = 2.633 meters)

6)         The outer width of Khafre corresponds to two Geographical Feet plus 1 Small       Cubit (0.6158 + 0.4457 = 1.0615 meters)

7)         The inner length of Menkaure corresponds to 6 Geographical Feet (1.847   meters)

8)         The inner length of Khufu is one Geographical Foot inferior to its outer length      (2.293 – 0.308 = 1.985)

9)         The outer volume of Khafre is equal to the outer volume of Hordjedef (2.463 x      1.2316 x 0.8914 = 2.633 x 1.065 x 0.965 10. The measurement of the length of the Khufu sarcophagus (2.293 m.) is half the sum of the measurements of the        Hordjedef sarcophagus for the calculation of its outer volume (outer length,            outer width and outer height). 

With all these data, we can say that the four sarcophagi unequivocally enclose the Real Cubit and the Geographical Foot on their walls. 

Of the four sarcophagi mentioned, only in the coffin of Hordjedef we can recognize the unit the “meter”.

The imaginary line parallel to the diagonal of the side face of the prism, from the corner of the projected inner bottom, intersects the upper edge of this side face at a point whose distance to the furthest corner is exactly one meter.

Sarcophagus of Djedefre

(1 Royal Cubit = 0.5239 meter)

The sarcophagus of Hordjedef, the Geographical Pie and the Royal Cubit constitute the proof that the Egyptians knew the meter.

Did the Egyptians obtain this knowledge by their own means or did they have the help of beings from other worlds?  Time will tell us. =================================

William Verhart, Madrid  04-01-2019


*Pochan A. –  1971  –  Editions Robert Laffont S:A.  – L’Énigme de la Grande Pyramide

*Flinders Petrie W.M. –  1883/1990 – Histories & Mysteries of Man Ltd. – The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh

*Delgado M.J. – 1995 – “El Problema Matemático más Antiguo del Mundo”

The Meter of the 4th Dynasty


Welcome to the AIP!

The Great Pyramid contains secrets and mysteries waiting to be deciphered and understood.  That is the firm belief of the American Institute of Pyramid Research.

The American Institute of Pyramid Research was founded to continue the work of The Institute of Pyramidology in Harpenden, England, when it came to a sudden end at the tragic death of James Rutherford.  James and his father Adam had built a worldwide following through their regular newsletters and publications, most notably the four volume Pyramidology set, available now from Amazon. (It had been out of print and unavailable for decades).

Adam Rutherford spent hundreds of slavish hours measuring and studying the Great Pyramid, and his measurements are still used by many researchers (though most Egyptologists prefer the measurements of Flinders Petrie… more on that in another post…) Rutherford claimed that the Great Pyramid contains divine revelations through the media of geometry and stone, similar to the way prophecy contains revelations in words. Both need interpretation. Many Egyptologists label the work of Rutherford, and others in this tradition, as “pyramidiots.” For those who take their marching orders for meaning and truth from Egyptologists, you need read no farther. You have your verdict.

I was always taught that when one resorts to ad hominems in debate (and to state the obvious, when someone calls someone else a “pyramidiot” that is an ad hominem) one is tacitly conceding.  Rational discourse has ended. While I respect the work of Egyptologists, and benefit from Egyptology in the same way I do all scientific attempts to uncover the past, it does not entirely encompass my human capacity in the search for meaning. While Egyptologists study religion and metaphysics, they do not engage in religion and metaphysics. Egyptology is a hard, empirical science, not a metaphysical religion.  The American Institute of Pyramid Research on the other hand, does not out of hand dismiss metaphysics.  While we do support all scientific efforts to expound the wonders of the Pyramid, we do not hide or deny the fact that we believe there is evidence that the Great Pyramid contains divine revelations.

imagephoto: AIP Director at the Mena House, on a recent study tour of Egyptian pyramids. This is where Adam Rutherford stayed when he did his research on the Great Pyramid

While the AIP has many free resources and studies available to everyone (read through our blog entries here!) we simply ask that those who are not open to the idea that the Great Pyramid contains divine revelations not seek to join its membership. We continue in our work to keep alive in this world the idea that there are truths of eternal value to be found in the Great Pyramid of Giza, the only one of the 7 Wonders of the Ancient World still standing.

Larry Pahl, AIP Director


You don’t need Egypt!

You don’t need…Egypt!

As AIP Director I have been on several study tours of the pyramids in Egypt. It is certainly exciting to be in a foreign country, exploring new sites, riding on camels and trying new food. And you can certainly see things in person that will never look the same as they do on a page in a book.

I remember the night before I was to go into the King’s Chamber of the Great Pyramid for the first time, I could hardly sleep in my room at the Mena House. I was within sight of that grand monument which I had read about for decades, but now I was soon to enter it, and its grandest room, the King’s Chamber. Morning couldn’t come soon enough.  And when that moment finally came, and I was inside the famous corridors of the Pyramid, exploring its mysterious chambers, I felt like I had been there before. Because I had been there before, through so many photos and images of the mighty monument I had seen in the past.

My explorations inside of the Great Pyramid were limited to one hour. (The picture here is me at the empty coffer, the only furnishing in the King’s Chamber.) It is very hard to get the clearance that I received to be able to spend that hour. It was thrilling, and over quickly!  And yet you can spend hours, days, months and years in the Pyramid through the pages of the thousands of books which have been written about it.  You can explore all its chambers, learn of their measurements, browse their history, get an erudite guide and never worry about your “hour” coming to an end!

So if your goal is to really get to know the Great Pyramid, and to try to muscle closer to the secrets of this Silent Sage, don’t book a tour to Egypt.  Book a book. Now the problem you have won’t be finding the money for a tour, and finding the best tour groups that go to the pyramids, your problem will be, “Which books do I read?”  And I am afraid that for this search, there are no shortcuts or easy choices.  I’ll give you a bit of a guide soon, but first, let’s look at “What’s so great about the Great Pyramid?”.

You don’t need Egypt!

What’s so great about the Great Pyramid?

What’s so great about the Great Pyramid?

So what’s so great about the Great Pyramid?

Let’s look at a variety of ways that the Great Pyramid of Giza sets itself apart as one of the greatest marvels of all time.

It is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still standing. That’s pretty amazing…

Gone is the Statue of Zeus, the Colossus of Rhodes, the Lighthouse of Alexandria, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Temple of Artemis, the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus. Only the Great Pyramid is still with us.

It is one of the oldest structures on the face of the earth and arguably the best built. Its mortar joints are consistently 1/50 of an inch, thinner than a sheet of paper! Sir William Flinders Petrie declared that this craftsmanship could be compared to the “finest opticians’ work on a scale of acres.”  Consider that there are hundreds of thousands of stones that make up the Pyramid, none weighing less than a ton, most weighing about two and a half, and some as much as 20 tons! The Pyramid covers over 13 acres of ground and is almost entirely solid masonry, not hollow or earth-filled like the Central American pyramids. Building it today would stress even the best construction cranes and the best and largest private construction companies, their most talented artisans and their best engineers… and it would be too expensive to build!

The Great Pyramid is uniquely situated on our planet. Joseph Seiss claims that the Pyramid lies in the center of gravity of the continents. Many others say that it also lies in the exact center of all the land area of the world, dividing the earth’s land mass into approximately equal quarters. The north-south axis (31 degrees east of Greenwich) is the longest land meridian, and the east-west axis (30 degrees north) is the longest land parallel on the globe. There are only two places that these longest land-lines of the terrestrial earth can cross. One is in the Pacific Ocean, and the other just happens to be at the Great Pyramid! This fact alone is – incredible!

This is not the only intimate connection between the Pyramid and the planet on which it sits. In his fascinating narrative in Secrets of the Great Pyramid, Peter Tompkins lays out the historical and geometric evidence that the Pyramid is a geographic representation of earth’s northern hemisphere.  That could only be true if the ancient Egyptians had knowledge of the size and shape of the earth. It can now be established scientifically that these Egyptians knew the shape of the earth “to a degree not confirmed till the eighteenth century when it was established that Newton was correct in his theory that the planet was somewhat flattened at the poles, and they knew the size of the earth to a degree not matched till the middle of the nineteenth century…” (Tompkins, 211)

For the Pyramid to be a replica of the northern hemisphere, there must be a relationship between the measurements of the Pyramid and those of the earth. The Egyptian government sent J.H. Cole to measure the base of the Pyramid in 1925 and he found that twice the perimeter of the Great Pyramid’s base was 1,842.91 meters. The modern figure for a minute of latitude at the equator is 1,842.9 meters.  Thus, each base side of the Pyramid is equal to 1/8 minute of a degree, and thus twice the perimeter would be equal to almost exactly one minute of latitude on planet earth!

In a recent article Keith Hunter also makes a case that baseline of the Pyramid was determined by the builders from the relationship of the elliptical arc between the Pyramid itself in Giza, and the equator. Again, the Egyptians would have to have known that distance to design the mighty structure. Hunter says the designers took 1/14400 of the distance of that arc, based on the 144,000 polished limestone blocks which originally covered the entire pyramid, making the Pyramid appear as a shining diamond with the bright sun reflecting off of it.   Many of those beautifully polished casing stones were knocked loose in a 14th century earthquake, and then the rest were removed by enterprising builders who used them to build many of the mosques in Egypt! The Great Pyramid is now “naked” having lost all the glittering stones that once covered it, and the second great pyramid in Giza shows just a few weathered ones remaining at its top.

Despite being one of the oldest structures on the face of the earth, the Great Pyramid has been called one of the most accurately oriented, its four sides facing almost exactly due north, south, east, and west. The Paris Observatory, symbol of Enlightened man’s advancement by science instead of superstition and religion, is six minutes of a degree off true north. The Great Pyramid is only three minutes deviant, and E. Raymond Capt claims that is due mainly to subsidence. There are architects and engineers who have studied the Pyramid’s structure and contend that, with all our vaunted technological prowess, we could not build the structure today. Does the theory of evolution run in reverse?

We will leave for later posts the geometrical evidence in the Pyramid that it is not a dead tombstone, but a living Prophet, in the unique way it combines length and time. We thought that only modern Einsteinian physics combined space and time, but long before Newton the Silent Sage was blending them!

What could explain this intimate relationship between the measures of the Great Pyramid and the dimensions of the Earth?  How could the ancient Egyptians have known something that history says was not to enter the annals of man for 4000 years, during the Age of Enlightenment?  The answer to this question depends on which school of pyramidology answers it…

What’s so great about the Great Pyramid?

Be true to your school!

Be true to your school!


Two thousand years after the Great Pyramid was built, the Greek historian Herodotus, known as the “father of history,” revived the study of that Mighty Wonder. From that time to this, there was been controversy over its meaning and symbolism. In our day, opinions about the Pyramid fall into three schools, roughly sketched below.

  • “Pyramidiots”. This is the unflattering name given to those who believe the Great Pyramid is a revelation from a divine source, from the Creator. Those in this school say the plans for its building came from prophets who were in touch with the Divine will. One of the most distinguished scholars in this group was the Astronomer Royal for Scotland, C. Piazzi Smyth,(with Newton, Darwin and Einstein) a member of the Royal Society. Smyth, in his book Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid (1864) claimed that the measurements he obtained from the Great Pyramid of Giza indicated a unit of length, the pyramid inch, equivalent to 1.001 British inches, that could have been the standard of measurement by the pyramid’s architects. Smyth claimed that the pyramid inch was a God-given measure handed down through the centuries from the time of Noah, and that the architects of the pyramid could only have been directed by the hand of God.  Adam Rutherford, who directed the Institute of Pyramidology, and wrote a 4 volume set entitled “Pyramidology,” is another leading “pyramidiot.”  Zahi Hawass regularly uses this term to dismiss any findings from this school. It is a generally undeserved ad hominem because of the serious and rational scholarship from many researchers in this group. But the Christian perspective of most of these authors dooms them to contempt from secular scholars.
  • Esotericists or “Theosophists.” The centerfold of this school would be current authors of widely circulated books speculating on the meaning of the Sphinx, the pyramids, and related matters, especially Robert Bauval and Graham Hancock, authors Fingerprints of the Gods and The Message of the Sphinx. Students and scholars in the Esotericist School believe the wisdom built into the Great Pyramid came from an intelligence not now present, either from a fallen former super-civilization, like Atlantis, or from intelligent aliens, gods from outer space who visited earth in an ancient past. Bauval and Hancock work from the standpoint that a great intelligence from the past has been lost, but they never directly posit intelligent aliens. But that implication – that highly intelligent alients built the Pyramids – is always there to be drawn by those millions who buy their books and follow their work.
  • Egyptologists. This is the modern priesthood of pyramid knowledge, the small cadre of scholars holding doctorates in fields relating to ancient Egyptian history, language and religion. Modern Egyptologists believe the Great Pyramid was built by Egyptians in conventionally calculated historical times, and the Pyramid’s metrics, symbolism and meaning must all be interpreted from the religious beliefs of the Egyptians held at the time of the Pyramid’s construction. The most famous face of this group would be Dr. Zahi Hawass, who oversaw Egypt’s antiquities before the 2011 Egyptian revolution. While Hawass does not have an outstanding reputation as an honest scholar among many Egyptologists and Esotericists (Bauval regularly slams his scholarship and honesty), his enthusiasm for things Egyptian has captured the hearts of devoted followers around the world who see him on National Geographic specials, and in the news. I participated in two tours of the major Egyptian pyramids with Dr. Hawass, and appreciate his defense of the Egyptian authorship of these grand monuments.

The most elite of these three schools – the hardest to get into – is the Egyptology school. Here are some of the hefty admission requirements:

  1. You must be accepted into a PhD program at a major university. That’s hard!
  2. You must have the money to pay expensive tuition for many years. (Robert Bauval continues to insist that Dr. Zahi Hawass, and another widely known Egyptologist, Dr. Mark Lehner, were both given financial assistance to pay for their PhD work from an esotericist group, The A.R.E., a group focusing on the wild and weird prophecies of the “sleeping prophet”, Edgar Cayce!)
  3. And now for the biggest hurdle: you have to accept
    • the major foundations of the accepted Egyptian chronology (even though there are countless evidences of where it was wrongly constructed in the formative years of modern Egyptology),
    • the required skeptical and negative academic attitude toward esoteric and metaphysical and Christian interpretations
    • your worldview must be constrained and defined by the existing Egyptological establishment

It’s easier to join the first school, because it allows its students freedom of conscience and belief.  The “Pyramidiots” largely believe that the Pyramid is a divine revelation, the other two groups don’t. Egyptologists are largely empiricists.  The one way they might be said to acknowledge God is when they write about the many gods the ancient Egyptians believed in, and analyze their religious systems. The Esotericists might be willing to conjecture that the apparent geometric marvels of the Pyramid are the result of knowledge lost with Atlantis or some other highly advanced but now destroyed civilization, but they would belittle the possibility that God used prophets to direct the building of the Great Pyramid in the way that some believe God directed Noah to build the ark. They are willing to exercise their muscles of hope for unseen Atlanteans, but not for unseen divine prophets.

While there have been a wide range of sympathizers to the idea of divine inspiration in the Great Pyramid, from a variety of slants, including Sir Isaac Newton (I have studied his Dissertation upon the Sacred Cubit… in the rare book room of the University of Chicago’s Regenstein Library, in which he deduced a sacred and profane cubit- if you would like to read it I was allowed to make an electronic copy and it is available to those who join the AIP), it might be helpful to look at the man who could be said to have sparked its modern consideration,  John Taylor.  Taylor’s book entitled, The Great Pyramid: Why Was it Built and Who Built it?  was published in 1859, the same year that Darwin published The Origin of Species.  The similar timing of these two seminal works seems providential in that they propose singularly opposing views on the origin, and ultimately the purpose, character and destiny of the human race.

Given these gigantic stakes, what were Taylor’s findings and conclusions?

Be true to your school!

Darwin of the Sage

The works of John Taylor and Charles Darwin in 1859 were epochal. Taylor points to divine, Darwin to natural explanation of origins. The struggle between these divergent and irreconcilable viewpoints spawned what has become a gigantic realignment of the core Western worldview: God is no longer the assumed, default foundation for meaning. Really this is more than just a realignment of the West. The entire history of the world is people groups revolving around their God, their theology, and their common religious practices.  Atheism was largely unknown on planet Earth until the 20th Century. The Industrial Revolution was the new Grand Inquisitor elevating the gods of efficiency, mechanization and its service of creature comforts, snuffing out slowly, methodically, every metaphysical spark, sucking dry any connections to eternity, a perfecting of the inevitable unified theorem: “Time is money.”

But. John Taylor. As I write this, it is March 14, which officially in America, since 2009, is “Pi Day.”

It was John Taylor who first proposed, in his book The Great Pyramid: Why Was it Built? and Who Built it?, the idea that the number π (pi) was incorporated into the design of the Great Pyramid. He found that dividing the perimeter of the Pyramid by its height, equals 2π.  Since a circle’s radius is related to its circumference by that same number (2π) Taylor thought perhaps the Great Pyramid was intended to be a representation of planet Earth, the height corresponding to the radius joining the center of the Earth to the North Pole and the perimeter corresponding to the Earth’s circumference at the Equator.  Scotland’s Astronomer Royal, Charles Piazzi Smyth, picked up on this concept, spent considerable personal wealth in measuring the Great Pyramid to confirm and champion it, along with other ideas from Taylor’s book, such as the antiquity and divinity of the cubit as a measure. So much so, that a movement was formed which battled back against the steam roller of godless efficiency and said no! to its ultimate symbol: the metric system.  A totally rational man-made system of measures, easily manipulable by tens, initially based on a meridian through Paris, capitol of the Enlightenment, who would deny it worldwide takeover?

John Taylor. Charles Piazzi Smyth. Britain and America said no. They said no to the metric system, when everybody else was saying yes, because they believed that the builders/designers of the Great Pyramid had a connection with the Creator, the Creator had given the cubit, the cubit was used in the Great Pyramid’s design, and the English system of measures – the foot, inch, the pound, the acre – was descended from the cubit. The metric system had no such divine connection, but was a creation of the Enlightened mind.  So this battle of which measuring system to use was another manifestation of the Darwin – Taylor stand-off. Naturalism and its pinnacle, the mind of man, juxtaposed to Intentional Design from the mind of a Creator.

So on this Pi Day, let me meditate out loud about π, in a way to strike back against the onslaught of skepticism grounded in empiricism, the unique modern conceit. π is an infinite number.  It never ends, can never be finally calculated, goes on and on in endless song. It is what mathematicians call an “irrational” number. Perfect!  It is only irrational because they cannot contain it, turn it into a simple fraction. They cannot define and control it. But a wonderful characteristic of this “infinite” number is that it is used practically all the time, not just to calculate circumferences or diameters, but to help establish normal probability distribution, and to allow “signal processing” which basically converts a signal to a frequency spectrum, thus allowing, for instance, your cell phone to communicate with a cell tower. π is infinite, yet can yield practical results by being operationalized to 22/7 or 3.14.

π, at the center of construction of the Great Pyramid, is a perfect symbol for the Silent Sage. The Sage is mysterious, “irrational”, yet one of the world’s most visible, recognized and beloved monuments. The Pyramid, like π, embodies a higher wisdom from the ancient past. It can be said of the Sage, like the heavens talked about in Psalm 19:

Day after day it pours forth speech;
    night after night it reveals knowledge.
3  It uses no speech, it uses no words;
    no sound is heard from it.
Yet its line goes out into all the earth,
    these nonword “words” to the ends of the world.

Darwin of the Sage

Bauval and his books

Robert Bauval has published a lot of books.

Bauval books

Bauval has done a great service to scholarship by publishing with great energy his studies focusing especially on the pyramids of the Giza plateau, and the stars in the belt of the Constellation Orion.

As above, so below…

Bauval’s ideas are well known and widely available on the web. It is probably better to read these summaries than plow through his books because he is often verbose and gossipy. He loves to publish all the dirt and misdeeds of Zahi Hawass, so much that we could wonder if he is jealous of Zahi. Though Zahi is widely recognized as being more of a promoter and cheerleader for Egypt’s treasures than a rigorous, fair and dispassionate scholar, Bauval still seems to envy his wide popularity in some quarters. Hawass is certainly famous around the world. Here is a YouTube video from AIP where we put his Orion Correlation Theory (OCT) in perspective.

John Anthony West, Robert Bauval, Zahi Hawass, Graham Hancock

Bauval and his satellite intellectual partner Graham Hancock constantly lament that the Egyptological establishment (Dr. Hawass, Dr. Mark Lehner, and the other gods of Egyptology) does not accept their scholarship. Bauval/Hancock say the Sphinx is older than the 4th Dynasty, the Bad Boys say no. Bauval/Hancock say it’s weathering puts it thousands of years before the 4th Dynasty, the Egyptology gods say no. The Egyptologists say there is no credible connection with the stars and the Giza Monuments, the alternate stars Bauval and Hancock insist on it.

The rebels Bauval and Hancock believe the Giza Giants were built by a previous high tech civilization like Atlantis but Hawass/Lehner, the voices of authority, insist on the 4th Dynasty. Etc. etc.

So here is my message for the Masters of the Alternative, Bauval and Hancock. Look, you guys have sold a ton of books, you are famous, a ton of people believe your ideas. What is this desire to be accepted by the establishment academy? You are like school boys in the playground complaining to the teacher, “They won’t join in our game.” Get over it! Why would you want their acceptance? They represent all that you stand against: love of power over scholarship; blindness to new evidence from geology, physics, engineering; colonial attitude toward ancient Egyptians.

Face it, you have already won. The judge? The millions who follow your stuff and accept it. Keep doing what you are doing and forget about the Powers of the Egyptological Establishment. False paradigms will eventually fall in embarrassment. Continue in the confidence of your craft, your scholarship, what you know for sure and leave the fear and envy of the Establishment to the lightweights.

Bauval and his books

Imhotep and the problem of time

Every post on this blog has had its timestamp doctored.  Anyone who has worked with the web’s most commonly used creator, WordPress, knows that getting your blog posts to show in reverse chronological order is like solving the riddle of the Sphinx or the conundrum of how to square the circle.  I won’t say it can’t be done, but… well, it’s hard.  So I solved that problem by entering, for every post on this site, a date more distant in the past than the previous.  So none of the dates listed for the written snippets on this site are accurate.  Someone could probably find out the actual date every post here was laid down, but it would be difficult.

That’s a microcosm of the difficulty in settling with assurance on dates from the distant past.  It’s hard, and can’t be done with great surety.  Where certainty exists is, in many cases, not really certainty, but the brute force of scholars all reinforcing one another on a date they are all committed to, have put in their lecture notes, and have fastened into their system.  It is accepted because, well, um, because everybody accepts it.


Imhotep and the problem of time

The Sage Presents the Path of Life

A Middle-Eastern guru commandingly told people to “Follow me!”  What is the right path to life, and who has it?  The unified mantra today is, “there is no right path, every person sets their own truth.” There you go.  No need to consult Mohammad, or Socrates or Lincoln or Mother Teresa. Your god is within. Aristotle begins the Nicomachean Ethics by basically saying that everyone is doing what is right. All actions tend toward the good.  Since we are all defining our own truth, then all is well, and we need search no further.  Utopia has arrived.

Except.  Except that we all know that it hasn’t.  School shootings.  Cancer.  Deadly gas in Syria.  Not everything that everyone sets out to do is right.  So you are wrong on that point, Aristotle. Not all actions tend toward the good. Some actions are stupid, some wrong, some downright evil, some cruel and despicable.  So back to our initial inquiry.  What is the right path to life, and who has it?

The Sage Presents the Path of Life